Category Archives: Photos and Resources

Recent photographs from ICJB events; Any post which links to documents, reports, or other specific resources (like movies, photo archives, fact sheets, books).

Compensation Disbursement, Problems & Possibilities: a report by The Bhopal Group for Information and Action, 1991

iii – List of Appendices and Tables
iv – Map showing gas-affected areas of Bhopal
– The Bhopal Gas Disaster is an unprecedented event
– Government’s response fraught with apathy and lack of innovation
2 – Durga Bai
3 – Disbursement of compensation is a task of unprecented magnitude
– Data Collection
4 – Photos, Shakti Nagar, New Gandhi Nagar
5 – Study Population, Methodology, Findings and Discussion
– i. Children born after the disaster
6 – ii Incomplete coverage by surveys, claim registration and issuance of ration cards
7 – iii. Substantial number of residents are not receiving interim relief
– i. Medical examination of gas victims is incomplete
– ii. Essential tests have not been carried out on a large majority of the medically-examined population
9 -iii. A large majority of the medically-examined population has not been informed about the categories alloted to them
10 -iv. Medical categorization of claimants reveals gross underestimation of injuries
– i. Alternative scheme for disbursement of compensation
12 – ii. Watchdog committee needed to monitor disbursement
– iii. Medical Commission should be set up to supervise and monitor healthcare of victims
– The process of injury assessment followed by the Madhya Pradesh government is faulty
– Is a rational assessment of injury possible?
14 – Basis for interim relief
– Report of an investigation into “Anti-Encroachment Drive” by the People’s Union for Civil Liberties, M.P., June 1991
15 – The re-victimization of the victims
– The demolition of houses
– Terror and protest
16 – Why were these slums chosen for demolition?
– Legal procedure not followed
17 – Supreme Court order
– Rehabilitation
– Final disbursement based on the proposed scheme will lead to major delays
– The proposed scheme will lead to a denial of adequate compensation to the majority of the victims
– The scheme will give rise to large scale corruption
– The scheme is susceptible to abuse by non-victim persons
25 – Alternative scheme for disbursement of compensation
– Outline of alternative scheme
– The scheme outlined will provide for a fair level of compensation and cause the least disruption to the life of the community
– The alternative scheme will enable compensation to be received immediately
– The alternative scheme curtails the involvement of middlemen
– The alternative scheme safeguards the interests of the gas victims
– Suleman Khan
– Shakila Bi
– Premlata
– Bhojraj
28 – Chhotelal
– Narayani Bai
– Aladin
– Table I: Number of male and female residents in the three bastis and number of children born after the gas disaster
– Table II: Number and percentage of people not covered by ICMR and TISS surveys, claim registration and issuance of ration cards
– Table III: Number and percentage of people not receiving interim relief
30 – Table IV: Number and percentage of people left out of medical examination
– Table V: Number of persons and percentage of medically examined population administered specific examinations
– Table VI: Number and percentage of people who have not received notification about their categories
31 – Table VII: Number of persons and percentage of notified population receiving different categories
– Table VIII: Number and percentage of people visiting government hospitals and private clinics

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A chronicle of the continuing medical catastrophe in Bhopal with supporting medical papers and reports, documents, press cuttings, articles and research studies.
––The immediate effects of gas exposure and Union Carbide’s response.
–– Survivors’ first clinic and sodium thiosulphate scandal.
–– Damaged births in the aftermath of the gas leak.
— Refusal of UCC and later Dow to share medical studies into the effects of MIC poisoning.
–– Assessment of the effects of MIC poisoning.
–– Medical criteria for the disbursement of relief.
–– Government hospitals in Bhopal. Shortcomings and attitude to survivors. Supreme Court Monitoring Committee reports.
–– Foundation of the BMHRC and reports on its performance.
–– ICMR research projects. Cut off after just ten years and latterly resumed after survivors’ protests.
— Studies into the contamination of soil and water by chemicals abandoned at the derelict Union Carbide factory and their effects on the human body.
–– Sambhavna clinic research studies.

Eckerman, Ingrid. “The Bhopal Gas Disaster 1984 – Children’s Acute and Chronic Exposure to Toxic Substances” (PDF). Power point presentation (2010)

Eckerman, Ingrid. “The Bhopal Saga — Causes and Consequences of the World’s Largest Industrial Disaster.” (PDF). Power point presentation in easy English (2008)

Eckerman, Ingrid. “The Bhopal Gas Leak — too late for good epidemiology.” (PDF). Poster presentation (2007)


New England Medical Journal
Bhopal Technology
Emergency Medicine


Journal of Postgraduate Medicine I
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine II
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine III
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine IV
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine V
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine VI
Legal Medicine


Environmental Health Perspectives I
Environmental Health Perspectives II
Environmental Health Perspectives III
Environmental Health Perspectives IV
Environmental Health Perspectives V
Environmental Health Perspectives VI
Environmental Health Perspectives VII
Environmental Health Perspectives VIII
Environmental Health Perspectives IX
Environmental Health Perspectives X
Environmental Health Perspectives XI
Environmental Health Perspectives XII
Environmental Health Perspectives XIII
Environmental Health Perspectives XIV
Environmental Health Perspectives XV
Environmental Health Perspectives XVI
Environmental Health Perspectives XVII
Environmental Health Perspectives XVIII
Environmental Health Perspectives XIX
Environmental Health Perspectives XX
Environmental Health Perspectives XXI
Environmental Health Perspectives XXII
Environmental Health Perspectives XXIII
Environmental Health Perspectives XXIV
Environmental Health Perspectives XXV
Environmental Health Perspectives XXVI
Environmental Health Persepectives Conclusion
1987 – ICMR – 2.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 3.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 4.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 5.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 6.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 7.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 8.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 9.pdf
1987 – ICMR – 10.pdf
1987 – ICMR.pdf
1987 – Opthalmology.pdf
1987 – respiratory french.pdf


1988 – British Journal of Experimental Medicine.pdf
1988 – Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.pdf
1988 – Social Science Medicine Jasanoff.pdf
1988 – Social Science Medicine.pdf


1990 – Environmental Health Perspective.PDF
1990 – Human genetics.pdf
1990 – ICMR.pdf
1990 – Nature.pdf
1990 – Statistical Review of ICMR Study.pdf


1991 – Forensics – Mass Deaths.pdf
1991 – Respiratory CT Scan.pdf


1992 – Internationalizing Bhopal.pdf


1993 – Dhara editorial.pdf
1993 – Lancet b.pdf
1993 – Lancet.pdf


1994 – Medicine, Science, Law.pdf


1995 – Lung.pdf


1996 – Lancet.pdf
1996 – National Medical Journal.pdf
1996 – Respiratory.pdf
1996 – Risk Analysis.pdf


1997 – BMJ Respiratory morbidity – BMJ.pdf
1997 – Chemosphere.pdf
1997 (1977 reprint^) – respiratory.pdf


1998 – Bhopal.pdf


1999 – Cancer Causes Control.pdf


2000 – Lancet.pdf


2001 – Lancet.pdf


2002 – Dhara 2.pdf
2002 – Dhara.pdf
2002 – Lancet B.pdf
2002 – Lancet.pdf


2004 – BMJ.pdf
2004 – Dhara.pdf
2004 – environmental disaster – sriramachari.pdf
2004 – Science.pdf


2005 – Broughton.pdf
2005 – Lancet.pdf
2005 – ONLY PAGES 126-130 mental health report.pdf

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Why I quit Carbide before 1984, by their medical officer Kumkum Saxena

On the night of December 3, 1984, 22 year old Kumkum Saxena sat in her home atop Idgah hill in Bhopal studying for a neurology exam the next day. The phone rang. Hysterical voices talked about a chemical leak, pleading for help. “Oh God, they’ve done it again,” Saxena exclaimed. Chemical leaks were not new for her. They were the reason she resigned from Union Carbide.

It was the India of 1975. Starry-eyed Kumkum Saxena could barely believe she had landed a job as a medical officer with Union Carbide. “Fancy me working for an MNC! I was thrilled,” she says. Seven years later, the lustre had faded. Her frequent alerts about safety hazards, norms not followed, rubber masks not worn, had turned her into the girl “creating panic,” an embarrassment for the management. “They were painting such a rosy picture,” she says. “I would scream about silica dust and hydrocarbon levels. The more vocal I was, the more I was kept away. I did not get a pay raise and soon I was barred from management meetings.” At the end of 1982, Saxena decided it was time to quit.]

“Go against the wind. Put a wet cloth on your face to dissolve the gas,” Saxena told frantic callers. Poisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC) was choking the air. “There was so much gas, the leaves outside my door were singed,” Saxena says. “Had I panicked and opened the door, I would have been killed.” Nearly 20,000 were.

The next morning, the roads of Idgah hill were lined with blue faces and pink froth. “If only Union Carbide had told people how to protect themselves,” she says, “instead of running helter-skelter, thousands would not have left their houses.” It is such measures that Saxena had insisted upon. She knew how simple it was to prevent death.

But Saxena’s story begins before the night of December 3, 1984. That is why it is significant. She describes her job at Carbide as similar to that of a “school nurse” — running a medical centre with four beds and treating injured workers. As part of her training, she visited the research and development labs at the plant, realised the plant was producing extremely toxic chemicals, and learnt about threshold limits. “There was exposure to chemicals at totally unacceptable levels. There’d be a bag full of acid sitting there waiting to kill somebody. Silica and hydrocarbon levels were higher than prescribed. Sometimes there would be a leak not fixed, and yet the personnel were allowed to go there.”

On her own initiative, she began conducting regular blood tests. Often she’d find damaging results. “I’d remove employees from harmful exposure and treat them until the blood counts were normal again.” There were minor leaks “all the time”. The alarm sirens went off at the plant a few times a month, but “we’d contain them” before any fatalities.

The turning point came when one of those leaks did prove fatal. It was 1981. Ashraf Muhammed, a worker, was found drenched in phosgene (a poison gas used in both the World Wars). “We rushed him into the shower, but it was too late.” His death shook Saxena. She feared that if urgent steps were not taken, “there could be many more Ashrafs”. The world’s worst industrial disaster happened in Bhopal two years later.

“The warning bells should have gone off after Ashraf died,” she says. “That’s when I began insisting on a mass scale evacuation procedure.” It was the one thing Saxena was determined to have implemented. “People living near a toxic plant have the right to know what to do in disaster scenarios,” she says.

YET THE response was predictable — the equivalent of “shush little girl, the elders know better”. Saxena wasn’t surprised. “It’s expensive to keep people safe,” she says. “For a plant that wasn’t making money, that was too much trouble.” The year 1983 brought unprecedented financial losses at Union Carbide. That year, the monsoons were late, the cotton crop failed, and Indian farmers didn’t need Carbide’s product — the pesticide Sevin. India’s American dream seemed to be fading.

“Truckloads of Sevin came back,” Saxena says. “The losses were so huge, the company cut back on maintenance. There was an absolute disinterest in doing anything.” A plant with toxic chemicals, corroding structures, no maintenance, a demoralised workforce and apathy: “It had the makings of a perfect storm,” she points out.

Already the unused MIC being stored — three tanks full — was above permissible levels. Saxena says that because the plant was in a no-production mode, all the safety features — a flare tower that burns the gas, a series of valves and vents — that would have normally “contained” the MIC leak on December 3 were “switched off”.

Saxena — Kumkum Modwel after marriage — left India soon after the disaster. She now works as a primary healthcare physician in Connecticut, US. As she left, she carried with her the memory of a day that need not have happened, of lives that could have been saved. “I had a choice that day — to take my neurology exam or go to the ward. I chose the ward. I knew they’d be short of doctors,” she says. She remembers working with “five syringes”, trying to save the “chaiwala who used to give me samosas”, the Nepali boy, the halwai and his wife gasping for breath. “One of the reasons I wanted to leave the country is best explained by this line from Shakespeare: ‘Fair is foul and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air.”



On June 22, a Central Group of Ministers attempted to set right 26 years of neglect by announcing a new package for Bhopal victims:

• Rs 1,500 crore for compensation and rehabilitation. Rs 300 crore for the clean up of toxic waste
• Setting up of an ICMR centre in Bhopal
• Rs 220 crore for upgradation of designated Bhopal hospitals
• Curative petitions to the Supreme Court to review the 1991 out-ofcourt settlement of $470 million with Union Carbide; to review 1996 dilution of charges from culpable homicide to criminal negligence
• Warren Anderson’s extradition and the promise to pursue criminal liability of Dow Chemical

This is the Bhopal Campaign’s response to the offer:

• Compensation is based on a flawed system of damage assessment designed to downplay death and injury
• Only 40,000 victims — less than 10 percent — will receive adequate relief
• The GOM has not heeded the citizens’ demand for an Empowered Commission on Bhopal to oversee rehabilitation. Instead, it has passed on Rs 720 crore to the Madhya Pradesh government. Ministers and bureaucrats will pocket the money
• Much more than Rs 300 crore is required to clean the waste. The contamination has not yet been assessed
• The government plans to dump the waste in Pithampur, where families live within 200 metres. This violates the CPCT guidelines on toxic waste disposal. Instead, waste should be excavated and sent to a country that has disposal mechanisms
• The talk of hauling up Dow Chemical for liability is lip service. This has been the position of the Law Ministry for the last five years. GOM has made no recommendation on how Dow will be made answerable to an MP court

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Source documents


584 pages of documents obtained via the “discovery process” in a class action suit brought against Union Carbide Corporation by contamination victims in a New York court. Work in progress.


NEERI report executive summary 1994

NEERI report executive summary 1997


Bhopal case First Information Report (FIR)

Key source documents in the unheard case against UCC

Testimony of Edward Muñoz

The case against Union Carbide Corporation by Michael V. Ciresi


Medical documents, 1985-2005


Confidential minutes of meeting of Group of Ministers on Bhopal, June 2010


Letter from US Members of Congress to Dow Chemical, June 16, 2009 Letter from Members of Congress marking the 25th anniversary of the Union Carbide gas disaste and asking Dow Chemical to accept its inherited liabilities in Bhopal


Report from US India CEO Forum, March 2006, convened in 2005 by President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The document outlines plans for economic partnership and identifies obstacles. P13: “Specific focus on resolving legacy issues such as those impacting Dow/ Bhopal tragedy of 1984 … would send a strong positive signal to US investors.” Document sourced from:


Emails relating to India’s request for the extradition of Warren Anderson

US intelligence report from Mumbai, July 26, 2004




Email from Burson-Marsteller to Dow and Carbide PR people

Warren Anderson should not be extradited to India

Report from US India CEO Forum, March 2006, convened in 2005 by President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The document outlines plans for economic partnership and identifies obstacles. P13: “Specific focus on resolving legacy issues such as those impacting Dow/ Bhopal tragedy of 1984 … would send a strong positive signal to US investors.” Document sourced from:

Letter from US Members of Congress to Dow Chemical, June 16, 2009 Letter from Members of Congress marking the 25th anniversary of the Union Carbide gas disaste and asking Dow Chemical to accept its inherited liabilities in Bhopal

UNION CARBIDE (pre-merger with Dow)

Union Carbide proposal for building an MIC plant in Bhopal Includes the pages which reveal that important technology was “unproven”. 49 pages.

Excerpt from May 1982 safety audit of the Bhopal plant by US engineers

Export-Import Bank of the United States documents

Union Carbide Eastern assessment of the failing UCIL factory in Bhopal

September 1984 Safety Survey of MIC unit at Institute, West Virginia


Dow-Union Carbide Corporation Merger document

These documents were obtained via the ‘discovery process’ in a class action suit brought by victims of water contamination against Union Carbide Corporation in New York.

There are five hundred and eighty four (584) pages of private memos, letters, telexes and press cuttings, presented here in the order they were placed by Union Carbide. They need reorganising by date and subject. The work of cataloguing them all and putting them on the site will take some time, but work in progress can be seen below.


PoisonPapers1 1.pdf
Page 2 of undated letter from C.K. Harayan, Resident General Manager of EIIL (Eveready Industries India Limited) referring to quantities of Sevin residue and Naphthol tar on the site (44.55 and 2.54 metric tonnes respectively) and referring peevishly to IICT Hyderabad work on which he has not had a progress report.

PoisonPapers1 2.pdf 
June 23, 1998, From C.K. Harayan at Eveready to MPPCB’s Chief Scientific Officer Dr P.C. Seth in reply to the latter’s letters 10715 dated 18.6.98 and 8351 dated 14.5.98. The work of closing the landfill is nearing completion and monsoon allowing will be finished within a month. The secured landfill is constructed only on one part of Pond III. Mentions writing to four laboratories about doing chemical analyses of soil and water based on NEERI parameters. The four are, NEERI, Nagpur, IICT, Hyderabad, ITRC Lucknow and NCL, Pune.

PoisonPapers1 3.pdf
June 22, 1998. Harayan’s letter, mentioned above, Eveready to NEERI, IICT, ITRC and NCL about chemical analysis of soil and water samples from in and around the Solar Evaporation Ponds. Samples are to be collected under the supervision of MPPCB officials. The targeted properties and elements of the samples (as per NEERI report) are enclosed.

PoisonPapers1 4.pdf 
The parameters to be analysed. Targets were calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, organic carbon, nitrate, carbaryl and alpha naphthol.

PoisonPapers1 5.pdf 
June 22, 1998. Harayan, Eveready to ITRC Lucknow, inviting them to analyse soil and water samples from the Solar Evaporation Ponds. Parameters enclosed.

PoisonPapers1 6.pdf
The parameters to be analysed. Targets were calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, organic carbon, nitrate, carbaryl and alpha naphthol.

PoisonPapers1 7.pdf
15 June 1998. “Inspection Report on the Progress of Solar Evaporation Ponds at EIIL, Bhopal” by R Swaminathan. He visited the site between April 20, 1998 – June 15, 1998. Details of work included laying LPDE sheets, covering with clay, laying network of perforated PVC pipes, covering with gravel and fine sand and final clay cover. The work was found to comply with the specifications given in NEERI’s November 1992 report.

PoisonPapers1 8.pdf
June18, 1998, Dr P.C. Seth of M.P. Pradushan Niyantran (MPPCB) to Harayan in EIIL. In Hindi. Letter 8351 referred to in #2 above, reminding him that the Board had ordered testing to be carried out and asking him to get it done within a month and keep the Board informed of progress.

PoisonPapers1 9.pdf
June 6, 1998. Press cutting from Madhya Pradesh ChronicleTANK LEVELLING WORK STOPPED BY GOVERNMENT. “The Minister for Local Self Government has issued orders to the officers concerned to stop illegal levelling of tanks in Union Carbide premises containing chemical waste with immediate effect.”

PoisonPapers1 10.pdf
Ditto Dainik Bhaskar in Hindi, June 6 1998

PoisonPapers1 11.pdf
June 4, 1998. Inspection Report, Joshi and Associates. Finds some materials needed for the work of closing the landfill missing, others “not up to the mark”, work not properly done. The work would have to be concluded speedily as rain was expected in 15 days.

PoisonPapers1 12.pdf

PoisonPapers1 13.pdf
June 3, 1998. MP ChronicleTOXIC REMAINS IN UC PREMISES BEING COVERED UP. Sangathan leader Abdul Jabbar warn of danger to ground water citing pungent smelling water in Atal Ayub Nagar and J.P. Nagar.

PoisonPapers1 14.pdf
May 14, 1998. Upmanyu, Member Secretary of MPPCB to Harayan at EIIL. In Hindi. Noting that sediments from ponds 1, 2 and 3 have been spread in pond 3. and expressing the worry that the imminent monsoon rains would fill the drained ponds and that surrounding areas could run the risk of being contaminated.

PoisonPapers1 15.pdf 
STUDIES ON THE SAFE DISPOSAL OF SEVIN AND NAPHTHOL TAR RESIDUES LYING IN THE PREMISES OF MS EIL FORMERLY MS UCIL, BHOPAL. This report by the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, covers pages 15 – 119.

PoisonPapers1 16.pdf

PoisonPapers1 17.pdf
Undated letter from K.V. Raghavan of IICT Hyderabad to MPPCB announcing completion of the report.

PoisonPapers1 18.pdf
Undated letter from Dr Sajid Hussain of IICT Hyderabad to MPCCB, attaching report. Referring to MPPCB letter of Sept 15, 1997 asking for the report, upon receipt of which the final instalment of 2.5 lakhs could be released. Recommends a dedicated incinerator.

PoisonPapers1 19.pdf
PoisonPapers1 20.pdf
PoisonPapers1 21.pdf
PoisonPapers1 22.pdf
PoisonPapers1 23.pdf
Introduction to IICT report

PoisonPapers1 24.pdf
PoisonPapers1 25.pdf
Collection of samples and characterisation of residues

PoisonPapers1 26.pdf
Table 1 – Proximate analysis of Sevin and Naphthol tar residues

PoisonPapers1 27.pdf
Table II – Ultimate analysis of above

PoisonPapers1 28.pdf 
Table III – Physical properties of the tars

PoisonPapers1 29.pdf 
Table IV – Solubility

PoisonPapers1 30.pdf
Table V – Presence of other elements

PoisonPapers1 31.pdf
PoisonPapers1 32.pdf
PoisonPapers1 33.pdf
PoisonPapers1 34.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 35.pdf
Charts detailing results

PoisonPapers1 36.pdf 
Studies on treatment methods

PoisonPapers1 37.pdf 
Treatability train, 7 possibilities

PoisonPapers1 38.pdf
Chemical treatment

PoisonPapers1 39.pdf
Table VI

PoisonPapers1 40.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 41.pdf 

Table VII

PoisonPapers1 42.pdf 
Table VIII

PoisonPapers1 43.pdf 
Table IX

PoisonPapers1 44.pdf 

PoisonPapers1 45.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 46.pdf

Table X

PoisonPapers1 47.pdf 
Table XI

PoisonPapers1 48.pdf
Table XII

PoisonPapers1 49.pdf
PoisonPapers1 50.pdf

Reverse osmosis

PoisonPapers1 51.pdf
Table XIII

PoisonPapers1 52.pdf 

PoisonPapers1 53.pdf
PoisonPapers1 54.pdf 

Charts of reaction

PoisonPapers1 54.pdf
PoisonPapers1 56.pdf 

Chart XIV results

PoisonPapers1 57.pdf 
Thermogram Alpha Naphthol

PoisonPapers1 58.pdf
Thermogram naphthol tar

PoisonPapers1 59.pdf
Thermogram Sevin tar

PoisonPapers1 60.pdf 
Pyrogram of naphthol at 590˚C

PoisonPapers1 61.pdf 
MS spectrum peak

PoisonPapers1 62.pdf
PoisonPapers1 63.pdf

Compounds from pyrolysis of Sevin tar at 590˚C

PoisonPapers1 64.pdf 
Pyrogram of sevin tar at 590˚C

PoisonPapers1 65.pdf 
MS spectrum peak

PoisonPapers1 66.pdf 
Diagram for design of a dedicated incinerator

PoisonPapers1 68.pdf 

Compounds from pyrolysis of naphthol at 590˚C

PoisonPapers1 69.pdf
Collaborative work with NEERI

PoisonPapers1 70.pdf
Chromatogram of extracted Sevin tar sample sent by NEERI

PoisonPapers1 71.pdf
Chromatogram of extracted Naphthol tar sample sent by NEERI

PoisonPapers1 72.pdf
PoisonPapers1 73.pdf 


PoisonPapers1 74.pdf 
Proposal for undertaking work for MPPCB

PoisonPapers1 75.pdf 
Annexure I (report that follows)

PoisonPapers1 76.pdf

<strongPoisonPapers1 77.pdf 

PoisonPapers1 78.pdf 
Confirmatory accompanying letter

PoisonPapers1 79.pdf 
Plan of work

PoisonPapers1 80.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 81.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 82.pdf

Determination of Naphthol content

PoisonPapers1 83.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 84.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 85.pdf 

Specific gravity

PoisonPapers1 86.pdf 
Table 1

PoisonPapers1 87.pdf
Table 2

PoisonPapers1 88.pdf 
Table 3

PoisonPapers1 89.pdf 
December 17, 1989. Letter from Mr Khare of MPPCB to the Director, Regional Research Lab, Hyderabad, referring to letter received from Mr M.S. Murty, Advisor (Chemicals), Government of India Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Delhi. The letter was sent via the MPPCB and seems to have inspired them to snap into action. Murty’s letter (below) orders MPPCB/UCIL to send samples of Sevin and Naphthol tars to RRL Hyderabad for extremely urgent analysis. MPPCB’s letter confirms it is sending the samples and says they should be analysed “on lines suggested” by Murthy. The matter is so urgent that the work should begin before there is even time to draw up a contract and agree payment amounts. A handwritten note added to the letter informs Dr Sajid Hussain that the Director wished to discuss the matter with him on December 31, 1989.

PoisonPapers1 90.pdf 
Procedure for determination of naphthol in naphthol and sevin tar samples

PoisonPapers1 91.pdf 
Detemination of methanol and other insoluble matter

PoisonPapers1 92.pdf 
Extraction of naphthol from sevin tar residue

PoisonPapers1 93.pdf
December 14, 1989. Letter from Murthy at GoI Ministry of Industry, Dept of Chemicals and Petrochemicals giving decisions of a meeting at which were present: Dr S. Vardarajan, Shri Shyamal(?) Ghosh (Joint Secretary, Bhopal Gas Relief Departpment, GoMP), Dr G. Sundaram (Joint Secretary, GoI Dept of Environment) and Shri V.N. Kaul (Secretary, GoMP). The tests for Naphthol residue to be performed were for: i) methyl carbamate acid (ii) 1-naptha phenol (iii) 1-Napthol amine (iv) Napthol dicarbamate (v) specific gravity (vi) viscosity (vii) corrosive properties (viii) mixability (?) with coal tar at 70˚-80˚centigrade (ix) any release of poisonous gas at 80˚ centigrade.

PoisonPapers1 94.pdf
High toxicity of samples, handwritten chart

PoisonPapers1 95.pdf 
Acute toxicity of Naphthol tar study carried out on Tilapia mossambica fish

More innocent victims of Union Carbide’s chemicals

PoisonPapers1 96.pdf 
Acute toxicity of Sevin tar study carried out on Tilapia mossambica fish

PoisonPapers1 97.pdf
Naphthol mortality chart

PoisonPapers1 98.pdf
Sevin mortality chart

PoisonPapers1 99.pdf
Acute toxicity study of Sevin tar on T mossambica fish

PoisonPapers1 100.pdf
Sevin mortality chart

PoisonPapers1 101.pdf
[Indecipherable] Naphthol reaction with ether

PoisonPapers1 102.pdf
PoisonPapers1 103.pdf

Charts of gas analysis

PoisonPapers1 104.pdf
Annexure II

PoisonPapers1 105.pdf
Interim Report on Disposal of Hazardous Waste

PoisonPapers1 106.pdf.
Preamble refers to letter rec’d by writer 1.1.89???

PoisonPapers1 107.pdf 
results of proximate and ultimate analyses

PoisonPapers1 108.pdf
Specially fabricated apparatus

PoisonPapers1 109.pdf
Table 3. Combustion of Naphthol tar

PoisonPapers1 110.pdf
Table 4 Combustion of Sevin tar

PoisonPapers1 111.pdf
experiments in an open blatta

PoisonPapers1 112.pdf 
important considerations

PoisonPapers1 113.pdf 
collaborating engineering companies

PoisonPapers1 114.pdf 
Re rec’d Sevin samples mentions letter of 16 May 98 says can’t be analysed using previous methods, further work to be planned

PoisonPapers1 115.pdf 

PoisonPapers1 116.pdf 
apparatus diagram fig 1, ref p108

PoisonPapers1 117.pdf 
Annexure III

PoisonPapers1 118.pdf 
Chemical treatment, electro-oxidation

PoisonPapers1 119.pdf 
Title of project, scope of work

PoisonPapers1 120.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 121.pdf

MPPCB to EIIL 5.2.99 pinning responsibiity for clean up on them, signed VK Jain

PoisonPapers1 122.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 123.pdf

Review meeting with MPPCB on 1.4.98 states that material had been quietly taken away and buried in various govt “nurseries” scattered all over – five lakhs changes hands

PoisonPapers1 124.pdf
PoisonPapers1 125.pdf

EIIL Harayan reply to MPPCB Jain p120 letter washes hands of site. Rejects polluter pays liability, which predates Hazardous Waste Rules 1989

PoisonPapers1 126.pdf
Harayan to District Industries Centre. April 21 1998.

PoisonPapers1 127.pdf 
p2 List of buildings in use***

PoisonPapers1 128.pdf
June 29, 1998. Letter in Hindi from DIC to EIIL requiring them to surrender the site in ten days’ time, on 10 July 1998,

PoisonPapers1 129.pdf 
PoisonPapers1 130.pdf
PoisonPapers1 131.pdf 

MPPCB petition to High Court Jabalpur reporting the handover and asking Court to direct DIC to make Union Carbide Bhopal pay up. Also cites possibility of groundwater contamination “after about 23 years”.

PoisonPapers1 132.pdf 
Oct 20, 1992. Norman Gaines announces his early retirement , one day before he clears his desk. To S. Bose of UCIL

PoisonPapers1 133.pdf 
Gokhale /UCIL logo

PoisonPapers1 134.pdf 
July 28, 1992. Vijay Gokhaleof UCIL to Bose, Basu, re pending ADL fees, Langseth fees. Refers to proposed Langseth (David Langseth of ADL) site visit in August 92, doubts whether Bose/CPL(??) feel the site is conducive to such a visit. Refers to Bose visit to NY in Sept and a forthcoming meeting in Singapore.

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Memo April 6, 1982 from MD Buckingham UCAP to Norm Gaines at UCC and UCIL managers. About the two sites in Bhopal, the 65 acre factory site and 34 acre site containing three solar evaporation ponds. “Both sites remain essentially as they were in December 1984.” Clean up standards to be determined by NEERI/ADL and be acceptable to GoI. Site leases to be relinquished as soon as feasible. “Credibility” is to be maintained with NEERI, GoI and MP state agencies. C.K. Harayan, UCIL’s plant manager is to the US for training mid 1992.

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Site Rehab Action steps July 28, 1992

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March 30,1992. UCIL’s Bose to UCC’s Gaines, referring to meeting in Singapore on Mar 17, 1992, gives results of analysis of well water outside the factory including R and C presumably the two wells in Atal Ayub Nagar, which has just come up. The wells are ‘unstable’. V5 is contaminated.

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Chart, V5 smells strongly of napthaline, 100/100 mortality of fish (percentage deaths after 24 and 48 hrs).

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Assessment of contamination in land-fill areas. Several samples produce 100/100 mortality of fish

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Gaines to Langseth April 24, 1992, attaching pp141-4

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Report: Internal Investigations of Ground Water and Soil at UCIL Bhopal plant premises, by Harayan and Kanhere, August 7, 1992 (This shows that Harayan switched seamlessly from UCIL to EIIL)

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Report, Objective, Background, Need for Investigation

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Scope of Investigation, Assessment of Land Environment

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Bio assay test giving method used and killing carp cuprinus(sic) carpio

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Hydrogeological study, borewells

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Analysis, Results

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Chart of wells and analysis outside pond boundary wall, showing 2 wells in Garib Nagar near the Solar Evaporation Ponds

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Table 1. Products produced at site, dates and quantities

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Table 2. Material consumption 1975-1984

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Assessment of contaminants in landfill

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Tubewell samples

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Factory plan diagram showing location of soil and water samples

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Tubewell V-5a construction details diagram

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Tubewell V-13a construction details

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November 23, 1992. From Harayan to Bose. V-5a and V-13a had not been bio-assayed for want of fish. Now it has been done and he attaches updated charts of results.

PoisonPapers1 162.pdf 
V-5a is 100/100 deadly, V-13a two samples, nil/nil

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Factory plan again, someone has circled Temik disposal site

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Memo to Gaines from Mike Buckingham of UCAP ANWGDV1 (?) April 26, 1992 revealing matter was discussed in Danbury on April 3, 1992. Bose, who is in town (Singapore?) wants further review of NEERI draft specifications and wants David Langseth to visit in August. UCIL’s C.K. Harayan to receive training in the US.

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Jan 21, 1993. Gokhale to Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.

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Gokhale to CBI June 29, 1993 announcing plans to conduct a study and begin dismantling parts of the plant, non-MIC areas, acknowledges deterioration of plant structures. Everything has been lying “as is where is” for the past eight years.

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CBI to Gokhale July 20, 1993 not wanting the CBI to be made a party to anything UCIL does at the site

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