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A landing craft of US Navy Amphibious Construction Battalion One storms towards the shores of Bhopal.Net

THE BATTLE HONOURS of the US Navy's crack Amphibious Construction Battalion One (PHIBCB1) include Korea, Vietnam and Kuwait. "We still like to maintain that 'Fightin' Seabee' image," says its Operations Officer, Lt. Cmdr. George Suther USN. PHIBCB1 was the first Seabee unit ashore in Vietnam, seeing action at Chu Lai, Da Nang, Hue, and Cua Viet. In August 1990, during the build-up to Operation Desert Shield, the Battalion -- following a gung-ho John Wayne tradition that dates from its early days hacking airstrips out of jungle -- was the first Naval Construction Force unit into Saudi Arabia.

The Battalion operates on a 48 hour ready-for-aggro-anywhere-anytime standby. It was catapulted back to the Persian Gulf in August 1994 "due to the threat of resurgence of Iraqi aggression" and stayed two months. Clearly this was not long enough to frazzle Saddam's nerves because in August 1995, once again "due to the threat of resurgence of Iraqi aggression" it was back in the Gulf where this time it remained more than a year.

In August 2002, the Seabees made landfall on Bhopal.Net. But what on earth were they doing here?
"We provide a service and that service is to and for the Marines," explains Lt. Cmdr. Suther. "We are the second unit to hit the beach, right after the Marine Expeditionary Unit."

Right. So we checked our website statistics and, sure enough, there they were -- the US Marines. They'd already landed. And not just the Marines, but the US Army Corps of Engineers, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Yokota Air Base, Forts Rucker and Hood, the US Army Research Laboratory, the US Naval Research Laboratory, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, the National Imaging and Mapping Center, the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, SBCCOM, even the US Coastguard.

It would be gratifying to think that all these warfighters (as they now seem to be called) have a lively interest in the campaign for justice of the gas-survivors of Bhopal, but this seems just a tad unlikely. Try as we may we cannot imagine the boys of III Corps parading round Fort Hood presenting brooms chanting "Jhadoo Maro Dow Ko" (if this baffles you, scroll down for our previous story). For one thing they're too busy. Aren’t they supposed to be concentrating on Mr Hussein and his merry band of pranksters? So why are they here? It can't be, can it, that they think we pose a threat to US national security? Even if we wished to ward off this combined invasion by the air, land and sea forces of the world’s most powerful nation, the only weapons we could muster are an old, leaky fountain-pen and an over-worked teapot.

But we don't wish to repel them. We would like to invite them all for chai and samosas. Then we could politely ask them if there is something they would like to discuss.


IN AUGUST 2002 Bhopal.Net had more than 100 visits from US military domains. Nearly three a day. The strong interest continued through September, with 188 visits. What did these guests want? What were they looking for?

Not the usual porn stuff

IN A STORY ABOUT BHOPAL.NET published on 30 September 2002, Bhopal's leading English language newspaper, the Central Chronicle, speculated about what drew the US armed forces to the website. Why the strong military interest, the paper asked. "They are not just wasting their time on the Bhopal site. After all it is not the usual porn stuff..."

Such praise. Our site is much used by Bhopal survivors and our friends in the world's media - last month the BBC referred more users than anyone bar Google. On the distaff side, we are well aware of Dow Chemical/Union Carbide's interest in Bhopal.Net. In August Dow Chemical - even without its proxies - was by far the site's biggest user. Dow users examined every page on the site an average of three times and downloaded 65 megabytes of information and pictures.

Anadarko tribe's last public appearance in 1947. Photo John C Chapman

Honey eaters and dead hummingbirds

WE HAVE COME TO EXPECT the visits of Dow and its fellow travellers - firms like Genencor which dabbles in what it is pleased to call "Directed Evolution" - it develops gene-based products for the industrial chemical monde, and has joined forces with Dow to create a “Silicon Biotechnology”. (Dow it seems learns nothing. It has already had its fingers badly burned by Dow-Corning's silicon breast implant disaster.)

Then there are the gawping onlookers. Companies like Houston-based multinational oil giant Anadarko Petroleum, which proudly claims to take its name from "nadarko" - a centuries-old American Indian word signifying "those who ate the honey of the bumble-bee."

The Nadarkos are a vanished Oklahoma tribe, their honey long since stolen out of their mouths, but their suffering is conveniently forgotten and their name now lends dignity to the grubby business of oil-hustling. (Anadarko is implicated in clear-cutting of primary rainforest in Guatemala's critically sensitive and supposedly inviolate Laguna del Tigre Park reserve.)

We will cover these and other corporate honey-eaters in another article on non-military users of our website.


You know all you need to know...

OF OUR 100 MILITARY VISITORS in August, no less than forty-two came via, a mysterious US military domain that has begun cropping up with increasing frequency in website logs around the world. Francisco Roque, the owner of was bemused to find users searching his site for things as disparate as "wireless hack" and "growing avocado trees", so he emailed the NIPR.MIL system administrator and asked:

i'm curious as to what some domains in the range are, namely
> which i see hit my website with greater frequency.

Back came the terse reply "You know all you need to know"., as Francisco suspected, is not a single domain a but a hush-hush web proxy that acts as a gateway for hundreds of U.S. military domains in order to hide their identities. It was established by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) in response to a memorandum (CM-5 1099, INFOCOM) issued in March 1999 by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, calling for "actions to be taken to increase the readiness posture for Information Warfare." "Uncontrolled Internet connections," the document says, "pose a significant and unacceptable threat to all Department of Defense information systems and operations."

Hackers beware "America's Hammer" ... not

WE HAD A VISIT from the info-warriors of III Corps, Fort Hood, a force describing itself as "America’s Hammer" and adding the boast: "Dominating the information sphere".

This domination is apparently to be accomplished via a System Administrator Security Course whose recommended reading includes such works as Hacking Exposed, Windows 2000, (2nd and 3rd editions Sept and Oct 2001 respectively) and Windows NT Security Handbook (McGraw Hill, the 1996 edition)

We hope they are not relying on these tomes, all of which were published too early to catch major security flaws in Windows 2000 and NT - for example a buffer overrun in the phone book of the Remote Access Service - that could allow a remote attacker to gain full control over the machine via the internet or cause it to fail. This glaring hole was belatedly recognised by Microsoft only in June of this year. Nor will Microsoft's patches protect against the W32/BugBear-mm virus, first discovered just thirteen days ago, which can disarm firewalls and anti-virus systems, allow hackers in to take control and steal passwords and information. In fact...

Fort Hood has already been humiliated by hackers once this year. (Story on right). The Army's red-faced Director of Information Assurance, Colonel Thaddeus Dmuchowski explained to amazed reporters that it had happened because "Everything is connected."

So it is. We are willing to bet that most US military computers are not yet protected against Bugbear.

If you are a III Corps,, other US military network admin (or are called Thaddeus Dmuchowski) and this is news to you, go to NOW and don't say Bhopal.Net didn't never do nuffink for ya.

The Bugbear worm is real, but the generals frequently have fits of hysteria over fantasies. The spring 1998 issue of the US Army War College's academic journal, Parameters, contained the following po-faced warning from Lieutenant Colonel Timothy L. Thomas, an analyst at the Foreign Military Studies Office at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: ". . . one computer virus capable of affecting a person's psyche is Russian Virus 666. It manifests itself in every 25th frame of a visual display, where it produces a combination of colors that allegedly put computer users into a trance. The subconscious perception of the new pattern eventually results in arrhythmia of the heart." (Quoted in Crypt Newsletter)



"Hackers invade military PCs with ease" wrote the Washington Post on 16 August. "One computer at Fort Hood in Texas held a copy of an air support squadron's "smart book" that details radio encryption techniques, the use of laser targeting systems and other field procedures. Another maintained hundreds of personnel records containing Social Security numbers, security clearance levels and credit card numbers... A NASA computer contained vendor records, including company bank account and financial routing numbers. Available on other machines across the country were e-mail messages, confidential disciplinary letters and, in one case, a memo naming couriers to carry secret documents and their destinations...the computers were linked to networks at Fort Hood."

SPC Eric Adam, server administrator during the Embedded Warfighter Exercise (part of III Corps’ Battle Command Training Program) said "It gets very intense when you have to make sure the network is secure from outside attacks . . . It’s similar to posting guards at each ‘gate’ or ‘entrance’ to the network so hackers can’t access classified information."

"We were shocked and almost scared by how easy it was to get in," said Hoodwinker-in-chief Brett O'Keeffe, of computer security company, ForensicTec."It's like coming across the Pentagon and seeing a door open with no one guarding it."

The company did the hack as a publicity stunt, then presented its findings to the world as a concerned good citizen. Unfortunately for them, the Hoods didn't take kindly to being shown up and America's Hammer came down rather hard on O'Keefe's nuts.

Noo-ku-lar bombs, softball, Fat Man and Osama

ACCORDING TO GEORGE SMITH, the acutely well-informed and wickedly acerbic editor of Crypt News, hacking threats to US security are routinely exaggerated in order to secure ever larger military budgets. Crypt's current issue instances Bruce Blair, the head of the Center for Defense Information, "an organization which has demonstrated no more know-how about the nuts-and-bolts of computer security or the capability of "cyberterrorists" than an average passerby, going on in the October 8 edition of the Washington Times about how hackers may have been capable of issuing launch orders for a nuclear missile."

Crypt complained that on the very same day, President Bush was using cod science on CNN to stir up fears about Iraq. "...In a national speech, the President goes on in debating team style about a 'soft ball-sized' chunk of uranium being all that is needed for a 'noo-ku-lar' bomb".


Bhopal.Net did a little quick ferreting and discovered that the softball factoid dates from 1945. it was part of the information given out about the Nagasaki bomb "Fat Man", which had a plutonium core weighing 13.6 lbs, approximately the size of a softball. At that stage the softball was just an amazing believe-it-or-not scientific fact but it evolved into believe-it-or-else paranoia when in testimony given before the Senate Subcommittee on European Affairs, August 1995. Graham Allison flamboyantly declared:

"I carry this briefcase with me everywhere... In this briefcase, I carried today in addition to the pile of papers, first one softball. It is an American softball. If this softball were highly-enriched uranium, it would weigh 30 pounds. It fits my briefcase quite well. Actually, I could carry several softballs of highly-enriched uranium in my case... If we were talking about plutonium, enough plutonium to make a bomb, a second item in this same briefcase is more than enough. This is an American baseball. There could be several of them that fit alongside the softball very well."

"What if," he continued, "the terrorists who attacked the 110-story World Trade Center in 1993, or more recently last April, the Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City killing 162 men, women, and children had used the same minivan that they drove, but filled it not with chemical based explosives they used, but rather with a weapon that started with this softball?"

Four years later in a Harvard discussion paper entitled "Russia's Domestic Political Future and U.S. National Interests" Allison pitched the softball directly to Osama.


"Beyond [Russia's] assembled weapons, there are approximately 70,000 nuclear weapons-equivalents in stockpiles of highly enriched uranium and plutonium, a softball-sized chunk of which, if it found its way to Iran or to one of bin Laden's terrorist groups, would provide the critical ingredient from which a crude nuclear device could be assembled."

What Allison did not bother to tell either the aghast senators, or his Harvard readers, was that the plutonium would need to be highly enriched, it would require a beryllium-polonium initiator and 5,300 lbs of high explosive to crush the core into a critical mass (the size of a tennis ball). These things it is doubtful he could have fitted in his briefcase.

The briefcase used at Nagasaki
on August 9, 1945 was delivered by B29
Such is the quality of the US Commander-in-Chief's intelligence. (no pun intended)

Rocky Flats and Dow Chemical, Oak Ridge and Union Carbide

in April 1999 the softball reappeared in a article entitled "Mushroom Cloud over Denver", which quoted a 1997 telephone conversation in which the Department of Energy's Ed McCallum expressed his fears about lax security at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, nuclear weapons facility.

"The workers at that plant, and the citizens of Colorado, are at extremely high risk" said McCallum, from terrorists who could unleash "a little mushroom-shaped cloud" that would not only kill Denver's million-plus inhabitants, but would claim tens of millions of additional lives as its radioactive plume blew across the Midwest and on to the East Coast. (It takes only a softball-sized chunk of plutonium to create an explosion equivalent to three or four Hiroshima blasts.)"

The Rocky Flats site (pictured right), an environmental disaster area dangerously polluted with wastes of plutonium and other transuranic elements, used to be run by Dow Chemical. Plutonium processing came to an abrupt halt in 1989 when FBI agents raided the complex over environmental crimes, including dumping and storing radioactive waste in ways that allowed it to seep into drinking water reservoirs.

Dow's wholly-owned subsidiary Union Carbide used to manage the Oak Ridge, Tennessee nuclear weapons facility where, radioactive substances and other toxic wastes once dumped on the ground or stored in ponds are now leaching through the soil to the groundwater, and moving off the reservation.

These ironies, in respect of the poisoned aquifers and wells of Bhopal, hardly need comment.

Meanwhile, post Sept 11, paranoia has become an industry in the USA.


Coming soon:



  • Defense Secretary Rumsfeld's plan to attack somewhere you'll never believe
  • the X-File that still haunts US Defense Secretaries
  • US Joint Forces Command Operation and operation Millenium Challenge 2000
  • what a top Porton-Down chemical warfare scientist was doing in Bhopal just after the disaster
  • his links to the US military human-testing program of one of our visitors, SBCCOM
  • his direct link to the heart of Union Carbide's management
  • US fears about chemical weapons in the battlefield
  • Bhopal and Halabja as living chemical warfare labs
  • paranoia about chemical attacks in the US homeland
  • why Dow was so red in the face about Diane Wilson hanging a Bhopal banner from their ethylene tower
  • plus the extent of US military chemical and nuclear waste
  • health and legal problems, clean up attempts
  • why US satellites might be targetting Union Carbide's death-factory in Bhopal.





BHOPAL.NET HAS HAD SEVERAL VISITS FROM JOINT FORCES COMMAND, the "transformation laboratory" of the United States military. JFCOM develops new "warfighting" concepts involving different wings of the military and tests them with live and simulated exercises. It educates joint leaders, trains joint forces, and integrates the fighting capabilities of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Space Force. It has a "master plan".

JFCOM achieves all this, it seems, primarily by deploying a fearsome arsenal of ACRONYMS. Were its visits to us a C4ISR op to feed SJFHQ and JTF a PMESII-based ONA so they can do some JIP, exercise a bit of ACJ2 and even wager a DIME, or was it plain, simple CNA, CND or CNE? To find what this sentence means, look here.

"The 2001/2002 Unified Command Plan gave USJFCOM a 'laser focus' to become the incubator for new transformational concepts to build the military of the 21st century."



Praising JFCOM's work recently, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld said, "The U.S. military will be taking a bold step in its thinking. We can not and will not bet on what will happen in the next war. The next act of war can happen at any location."

When the US Defense Secretary says "any location" he means ANY location.

On 27 August, after consulting CCPPSAPT (Command Center for Planning Pre-emptive Strikes Against Preposterous Targets), Rumsfeld stunned a NPR News radio audience by revealing that the United States could hypothetically find itself in the situation of launching a pre-emptive strike against ... oh no, you are really not going to believe this... Click on Donald or his target and let him speak for himself. His interview comes about halfway through the RealAudio clip. Or click here for transcript.


Secretary Rumsfeld's remarks were made in the contect of explaining why he thought America could, and should if necessary, go it alone against Iraq.

REPORTER: What makes a pre-emptive strike (against Iraq) legal under international law, in your eyes?
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE RUMSFELD: Well, I'm not a lawyer, Pam, you know that. Don't give me that stuff.

The gaffe is par for the course in an administration whose leader told British Prime Minister Blair that "the trouble with the French is they don't have a word for entrepreneur", and assured an audience at Saginaw, Michigan, "I know the human being and fish can coexist peacefully", but it would be wrong to suppose that Mr Rumsfeld was being dense, or disingenuous.

It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that he really considers the moon to be a potential threat.

Rumsfeld's transformational plans for the armed forces seem to be creating confusion.

He advocates creation of a standing, joint force headquarters.but does not spell out how the operational-level joint headquarters would function during conflict, an omission that has led to criticism of the proposal. What their relationship to the warfighting commanders-in-chief would be is unknown, as is how they would fit into the overall war plan. Who would get which troops and when? “What's the relationship? Who's resourcing what? The Unified Command Plan apportions forces to the CINCs. Where do the joint headquarters fit in? What is the alignment of forces, east and west?”


From: Keay Davidson's biography, Carl Sagan: A Life.

Early in his career, Sagan worked for a secret military project researching the idea of detonating a nuclear device on the lunar surface, just to see what would happen. Manhattan scientist Edward Teller was also interested, if not directly involved, in the project.

The idea of targetting the moon did not simply slip into what the Defense Secretary calls his mind.


9 JUNE 1959

4. Organisational Concept.
The establishment of the outpost should be a special project having authority and priority similar to the Manhattan Project in World War II. Once established, the lunar base will be operated under the control of a unified space command. Space, or certainly that portion of outer space encompassing the earth and the moon, will be considered a military theatre. The control of all United States military forces by unified commands is already established and military operations in space should be no exception. A unified space command should control and utilise, besides the lunar base, operationa1 military satellites and space vehicles, space surveillance systems, and the logistical support thereof. Other space commands might be organised as our operations extended to translunar space.

5. Degree of Urgency.
To be second to the Soviet Union in establishing an outpost on the moon would be disastrous to our nation's prestige and in turn to our democratic philosophy. Although it is contrary to United States policy, the Soviet Union in establishing the first permanent base, may claim the moon or critical areas thereof for its own. Then a subsequent attempt to establish an outpost by the United States might be considered and propagandised as a hostile act. The Soviet Union in propaganda broadcasts has announced the 50th anniversary of the present government (1967) will be celebrated by Soviet citizens on the moon. The National Space policy intelligence estimate is that the Soviets could land on the moon by 1968.

MAY 1961

it can be stated that during the early 1970's it is possible that space weapon systems will be developed as a supplement to earth-based delivery systems. It is also possible that military facilities may have been established on or in orbit around the moon. Atmospheric and climatic conditions will demand an air conditioned environment for moon-based delivery systems. For increased survival security and decreased requirements for "imported" construction material, it seems reasonable to assume that these would be constructed under rather than above the moon's surface.



"The Chinese space program is a military program using military hardware and overseen by the military," said Charles Vick, space policy analyst for the Washington, D.C.-based Federation of American Scientists.

In an alarmist report, Rick Fisher, China analyst for the Washington, D.C.-based Jamestown Foundation, a right wing think-tank close to the Bush administration, predicted that China's People's Liberation Army will soon be capable of making missiles and rockets reliable enough to challenge the dominance of NASA. It could, he said, mean increased competition for American aerospace companies like Boeing and Lockheed Martin. But that wasn't the worst of it.

A Chinese moon flight is impossible until the Chinese develop a rocket as reliable as the Apollo program's Saturn 5.

"If China were to endeavor to put something more permanent on the moon," he said, "that would be very serious."

Ouyang Ziyuan, the Chief Scientist of China's lunar exploration program said that he was "very optimistic" about completing the first lunar mission before 2010. The long-range objective of lunar exploration is to "establish a lunar base, and exploit and utilize the rich resources on the Moon," explained Ouyang.

Junichiro Kawaguchi of Japan’s Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) said his country has not significant effort in sending humans beyond Earth orbit. He noted robotic research is not favored in Japan "for the time being," but there is growing "what next" interest. Kawaguchi said that human spaceflight undertaken by other nations, such as China, may well stimulate Japan to move out on human exploration.

Leonid Gorshkov of RSC Energia in Russia says his country is itching to send a mission to Mars.

Since September 11th, top military officers have held discussions with film makers, brainstorming scenarios for possible future terrorist attacks. Richard Lindheim from the Institute of Creative Technologies, says the military wants to think differently. "They wanted to think outside the box. They wanted to see if there were any far out ideas that they had not considered."

ICT's first Concept Development Project (CD/V), set about tackling the Army's need for Future Combat Systems (FCS) - essentially a possible replacement for today's main battle tank.

The team included writer/director John Milius (Apocalypse Now, Red Dawn, Clear and Present Danger), writer/producer Chris Crowe (Last of the Mohicans, Seven Days) and production designer Ron Cobb (Star Wars, Aliens, The Abyss, Total Recall, Cats and Dogs).

Driven by a warfighter dressed up like C3PO, expect the new generation tank to make impressive flashes, bangs and good whizzing noises.


A tribute to Professor Alexander Abian

It is a great pity that Professor Alexander Abian of Iowa State University is no more. For true thinking outside the box he stood alone. As long ago as 1991 he had anticipated Secretary Rumsfeld's efforts to solve the vexed question of the moon. It was an affront, Abian declared, to man's ingenuity that we put up with the wretched thing. It rotateth not and neither doth it spin. It causes inconvenient tides (much good land is twice daily inundated in salty brine) Let us blow it up, and have done with it for once and all.

"It is a sheer idealistic euphoria on the part of Newton and Einstein to consider the Cosmos as being 'Endowed with a profound Cosmic wisdom and a Celestial Supreme Harmony'. This is a sheer ecstasy imbued in a slavish reverence...We must alter and reshuffle our entire 8 billion year old decaying Solar System (in fact, the entire Cosmos) and reject the slavish indoctrination of the 'Majestic Celestial Harmony' which in reality is putrid and corrupt. In particular, altering Earth's orbit and tilt in order to stop the natural disasters and calamities and epidemics of deadly diseases such as plagues, cancer and various immune deficiency syndromes." ALEXANDER ABIAN

A fuller exposition of his lunar thinking is here.

Abian's idea was pinched by Hollywood in its new, universally-panned, movie The Time Machine starring the pulchritudinous Samantha Mumba. The moon is blasted to smithereens by dim-witted humans. Clearly it was only a matter of time before the military cottoned onto the concept.

Left, the moon explodes in the Time Machine


Right, a star explodes, as seen by NASA



BHOPAL.NET can attest to Abian's kindness and decency. He was a formidable mathematician. Those of us who knew and loved him are moved to wistful sneers when we see would-be net-gods like Archimedes Plutonium making futile attempts to emulate him. Alexander Abian was a nonpareil. We shall not see his like again. And neither will the scientists who gathered in St Petersburg in June 1996 for a conference on "New Ideas in Natural Sciences".



The first and the foremost step for making radical alterations
We must get rid of our insane and slavish acceptance of indoctrinations
and deceiving propaganda of various scientific, social, political,
and religious organizations. These organizations have brainwashed
us and continue to brainwash us by asserting that the entire Celestial
setup (and especially our Solar System) is a "magnificent, miraculous
Celestial harmony" endowed with a supernatural profound wisdom. In
reality though, that "Celestial harmony" is wicked, peevish, pestiferous
and malignant.

The Moon being the only satellite of the planet Earth has many
detrimental effects. Its gravitational pull creates precession
of the rotational axis of the planet Earth causing all kinds
of geological and meteorological disasters and devastations on
the planet Earth. The oceanic tides also disturb and wobble
the planet Earth creating spasmodic seizures with undesirable
irregularities in the orbital movement of the planet Earth.
Thus it is proposed:
a) To jolt the Moon in order to jolt the Earth into a saner and
healthier (for human beings) orbit.
b) To land the Moon on planet Earth (somewhere in the Pacific
Ocean) in order to augment the Earth's territory and eliminate
the abovementioned detrimental effects of the Moon.
c) To bring one or several Moons of other planets (such as Mars
> or Jupiter) and suppley the planet Earth with two or three
Moons in order to better balance Earth's movement and obtain
a more reliable overall stability.
d) To blow up the Moon into 2 or 3 pieces or to eliminate it completely.

All these proposed alterations must be carefully studied via computerized
simulations and their effects carefully examined. And all these prior to
taking or initiating the actual implementation of any of the above
suggested alterations.

In conclusion, it is high time that we examine the Celestial setup of
our Planet Earth, Moon and Venus rationally and not taking it for granted.
The human genius must not and will not tolerate for humans to be orbited
around the Sun like a horde of blind-folded speechless slaves in a
decadent corrupt orbit without imposing its own will in choosing the
Celestial parameters of (at least) the Earth, Moon and Venus. In fact,
it is high time to replace:
The origin of species by means of natural selection,
or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle
for life. (C. Darwin, 1859)
The future of species by means of rational alteration
of the Cosmos, or preservation of intelligent races in
the struggle for life (A. Abian 1992)





Arthur H. Westing
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Environmental Change and Security Project Report
Spring 1997


As to the lower atmosphere, two sorts of hostile manipulations were pursued during the Second Indochina War by the United States. First, various chemical substances were released into clouds over enemy territory in substantial attempts to increase rainfall so as to make enemy lines of communication more nearly impassable. Those attempts were unsuccessful. Second, unspecified substances were introduced into the troposphere over enemy territory in order to render enemy radars inoperable. The results of those efforts were never made public. Then during the Persian Gulf War, Iraq ruptured and set fire to over 700 hundred Kuwaiti oil wells, thereby releasing immense amounts of dense soot and poisonous fumes into the troposphere for no stated purpose, but perhaps at least in part in order to reduce visibility. Deleterious effects of the smoke on the environment included insults to the health of the local biota (including humans). Whether local weather patterns were influenced at the time by the smoke remains unclear.

Regarding further hostile possibilities for the lower atmosphere, it has been suggested that it may become possible to temporarily disrupt the ozone layer above enemy territory for the purpose of permitting injurious levels of ultraviolet radiation to reach the ground (perhaps via the controlled release of a bromine compound from orbiting satellites). Control over winds-for example, the creation or redirection of hurricanes-remains as yet beyond human reach. As to the upper atmosphere, it is conceivable that means could be devised in the future to manipulate the ionosphere for hostile purposes-specifically, to alter its electrical properties in such a way as to disrupt enemy communications.

Nonetheless, the suggestion has been put forth that some day it might be within human grasp to redirect asteroids to strike enemy territory (as has been indirectly suggested, most recently, by statements of the Chinese government a few weeks ago)

More from the Center for Defense Against Fatuous Threats (DAFT) - Electromagnetic pulse weapons and scary scalars

US military defense strategy since the era of President Reagan, a former Hollywood actor, has relied more and more on gizmos, gadgets and futuristic weapons systems. No coincidence that the missile defense system was code-named "Star Wars".

Those looking for material for a new Hollywood military-science disaster story - or simply in need of a laugh - could do worse than visit the website of the late Colonel Tom Bearden, a nuclear engineer, wargames analyst, and military tactician with over 26 years experience in air defense systems, tactics and operations, technical intelligence, antiradiation missile countermeasures, nuclear weapons employment, computerized wargames and military systems requirements.

According to Bearden, the Soviet Union had electronmagnetic beam weapons of awe-inspiring power as long ago as the 1930s. Soviet beam weapons shot down Gary Powers's U2 spyplane, were at the root of the Cuban missile crisis, destroyed the Challenger space shuttle, diverted the jet stream, caused earthquakes in

and trigger volcanic eruptions.

The "'science" originated in the work of a Nicholas Tesla.

X-File, document NY 65-12290, page two, reveals that Tesla had told New York Times reporter on 10 July 1940...



How odd then to discover that this beam weapon technology, presumably spurned by the US government in 1940, is causing panic nearly sixty years later.

In April 1997, at a conference on Terrorism & Weapons of Mass Destruction held at the University of Georgia, then-Secretary Cohen expressed his concern about "eco-terrorism" and "scalar electromagnetic weapons". Terrorists, he said, "are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our efforts."

JFCOM is the cutting edge of that intensification.


Back on Earth, earlier this year, JFCOM Commanding General Willam F Kernan stated, "Some threats are becoming more sophisticated, and have the capability to inflict great damage to U.S. interests through the use of weapons of mass destruction. Smaller enemies may use simpler methods to attack us, making early warning difficulty and detection of enemy forces more problematic."

In order to test its capacity for dealing with such threats, JFCOM recently carried out exercise Millenium Challenge 2002 involving 15,000 troops in live situations across the USA. It was the largest joint forces exercise ever held on American soil. Millenium Challenge 2002 was not an unqualified success. Debriefing fellow military officers, Major General Dean Cash admitted that they had come up against a weapon they couldn't handle. "...Whatever it was, bio or chemical - I'm almost positive it was chemical - we thought the strike would eliminate it, and that would be it. But once we really started - (inaudible) - no, it wouldn't. It would spread this stuff. And it would just disperse it. And it became much more of a challenge. And we should've never allowed the strike."

At the close of the Gulf War, the US Army exploded an Iraqi chemical weapons depot at Kamashiya. In 1996, the Department of Defense finally admitted that more than 20,000 US troops were exposed to VX and sarin nerve agents as a result of the US operation at Kamashiya. This may be one cause of Gulf War Illness, another cause is certainly the experimental vaccines unwittingly given to more than 100,000 US troops. CP

Ex-Speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich, commented, "We're not prepared for an engineered biological attack that's infectious, we're not prepared for a multiple nerve or poison gas attack or for a multiple nuclear attack with low-yield weapons brought in by terrorists."

Visions of clouds of poison gas rolling out across a landscape. This we in Bhopal know about. At last, we have something in common.

Dead dogs tell no tales

America is paranoid about chemical weapons.

The FBI’s list of likely terrorist weapons (as reported by DuPont)
Biological toxins
Industrial chemicals
Biological pathogens
Radioactive dispersal devices
Chemical Warfare agents
Nuclear weapons


"There is also the execrable videotape of cretins gassing a dog in a stone room in Afghanistan. It becomes proof that al Qaeda are experts in chemical weaponry. Perhaps they are, or perhaps not. But never mind that the stunt shown can be duplicated in any high-school chemistry lab in America, should anyone be stupid and hateful enough to attempt it. Instead of branding the al Qaeda fiends a bunch of loathsome but also perhaps dangerously incompetent lamers, a videotape is shoveled through the media as indication of an organized facility for killing technology using 'deadly gas'."






an organization within the Navy, has as one of its tasks the testing of new systems (weapons, ships, aircraft, etc.) that industry develops and that the Navy considers for purchase.



Marine corps +Amphibious units

were the first to land on Bhopal.Net. What were they looking for? What do they want? What they will find is descriptions of how horribly human beings die when exposed to US-designed chemicals. Well, Saddam has plenty of those and no small thanks to Union Carbide and Dow Chemical, both of which are known to have supplied pesticides and other poisons to his regime.




Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM)

Effective 9 October 2003, SBCCOM was re-designated into the following organizations: RDECOM (Research, Development and Engineering Command); CMA(Chemical Materials Agency); GUARDIAN BRIGADE; PM NBC(PM Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense); and SSC(Soldiers System Center).


SBCCOM US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command

Develop, integrate, acquire, and sustain soldier and NBC defense technology, systems, and services to ensure the decisive edge and maximum protection for the United States. Provide for the safe storage, treaty compliance, and destruction of chemical materiel.

U.S. military is worried about the following:

In the battlespace

  • exposure during combat of its troops to chemical weapons
  • how to detect and neutralise airborne toxins or pathogens
  • effects of blowing up enemy chemical weapons dumps
  • long term consequences of exposure to chemicals or protective treatment (Gulf War Syndrome

Homeland security

  • terrorists detonating home made chemical bombs in a city
  • terrorist strike against oil refinery or chemical plant
  • long term effects of chemical weapons exposed populations
  • security of plants


  • clean-up problems with chemical arsenal
  • possible pollution of aquifers and water table
  • health effects on workers


ARL does interesting work. One of its inventions, a system to diagnose faults in Abrams M62 tank engines has been adapted to monitor patients with high blood pressure.
In a statement issued in June, ARL said that it is working with its partners "to equip future soldiers with uniforms and gear that can heal them, shield them and protect them against chemical and biological warfare".
"Nanomaterials have also been modified to become nanoscale reactors that can be incorporated into the existing topical skin protective (TSP) cream. The reactive TSP cream not only protects, but also decontaminates chemical agents in both vapor and liquid form, thus significantly increasing the protection time. Also, genetically engineered, nerve agent specific enzymes have been nanoencapsulated into designer nanomaterials
The US Naval Research Laboratory
* Infectious disease diagnostics
* Biological warfare defense B. anthracis
* Food & beverage safety
* Agricultural/veterinary testing
* Environmental monitoring

16 visits also from the US Army Corps of Engineers. What are they looking for? " The Military Programs Environmental Division serves the nation through superior management, design and execution of a full range of cleanup and protection activities: * cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive waste, or ordnance"

* cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive waste, or ordnance
* complies with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations
* strives to minimize our use of hazardous materials
* conserves our natural and cultural resources



The long-range goal of the Digital Hammurabi Project is to make 3-D images of cuneiform-inscribed tablets available to scholars worldwide over the Internet. The Code of Hammurabi, circa 2000 B.C., contained clauses that could be interpreted as early attempts at workers' compensation.

APL, a research and development division of the Johns Hopkins University, supports the Department of Defense, NASA and other Government agencies through innovative applied research, technical development, and problem solving. Located on 365 acres in Laurel, Maryland, the Laboratory employs approximately 3,350 engineers, scientists, and supporting staff in a broad range of disciplines.
Homeland Defense Projects
APL’s broad experience in defense and security programs enabled a quick response to the national emergency facing the nation after the tragic events of September 11, 2001. We refocused Laboratory programs in a number of areas to address the new Homeland threat environment. Many ongoing projects were expedited, and efforts were made to quickly provide prototype technology at the request of our military sponsors. Examples include biological/chemical surveillance and detection systems, US mail inspection and decontamination systems, information systems security, port and air systems security, commercial shipping surveillance, and many others.

Mass Spectrometer Development for Bio-Chem Defense
Protecting people from chemical and biological weapons requires highly specialized sensors that can identify a wide range of pathogens. The equipment has to be compact enough to be available quickly wherever it is needed. APL has developed strong expertise using extremely high-resolution mass spectrometry as a powerful tool to detect and identify dangerous substances. APL scientists have developed a tiny, powerful time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions and the University of Maryland. The device is a portable "universal sensor" for analyzing solids, liquids, or gases in the field. It incorporates advances in signal processing and high-speed digitizing. It also features new techniques for ion formation and energy-focusing, new sampling and ionization schemes, and new analysis techniques. The current Tiny TOF tool is built into a suitcase-sized container, with plans to decrease its size even more while increasing it’s versatality.

Looking Past Disaster
In one of the largest collaborative projects ever conducted by APL and Hopkins Medicine, the Lab designed and conducted a series of four WALEXs, the latest in June. The first two involved key Hopkins staff from across the Hopkins enterprise, and the last two brought in senior leaders from city and state, and then from federal and military organizations.
As they worked through disaster scenarios triggered by dirty bombs, chemical spills, suicide bombers and a nuclear device, Hopkins and the response agencies learned what they and others must do to function as an effective team. APL researchers used the results to identify current health delivery systemwide vulnerabilities, define improved communication needs, design command and control architectures, and develop engineering models to evaluate critical response concepts of operation.




Eleven visits from the folks at Wright Patterson Air Force base. Hosts the 74th Medical Group. ASC Engineering Directorate, Acquisition Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H), responsible for pollution prevention and environmental compliance, also serves as the Secretary of Air Force executive agent for all Air Force owned aircraft and missile production facilities.
Executive Order 12114, dated Jan 4 1979
2-3 Actions included
Agencies in their procedures under Section 2-1 shall establish procedures by which their officers having ultimate responsibility for authorizing and approving actions in one of the following categories encompassed by this Order, take into consideration in making decisions concerning such actions, a document described in Sectio 2-4(a):
(a) Major Federal actions significantly affectiing the environment of the global commons outside the jurisdiction of any nation (eg, the oceans or Antarctica)
(b) Major Federal actions significantly affecting the environment of a foreign nation not participating with the United States and not otherwise involved in the action
(c) Major Federal actions significantly affecting the environment of a foreign nation which provide to that nation:
     (1) A product or physical product producing a principal product or an emissions or effluent which is prohibited or strictly regulated by Federal law in the United States because its toxic effects on the environment create a serious public health risk
88th ABW Environmental Management
Approximately 262 Above-Ground Storage Tanks (ASTs) at the base that require monitoring with respect to spill prevention activities. 
About 705,000 underground storage tank systems (USTs) nationwide store petroleum or hazardous substances that can harm the environment and human health if the USTs release their stored contents.
Home also to the Air Force Research Laboratory designing new kinds of warheads and air- and space-delivered munitions.
Yokota Air Base, in Japan.

From Rhine-Main non-stop flights depart directly for Iraq, loaded with bombs, munitions and soldiers. On the return flight they bring back wounded soldiers, who are sent to US hospitals in Wiesbaden and Landstuhl. The US army in Wiesbaden conducted a large scale exercise simulating a chemical attack.


The real thing



U.S. Army
Installation Management
Agency - Europe
  Commander's Hotline

Sexual Misconduct




(read 17 pages of
4,400 Division employees, an annual budget of nearly one billion dollars
Joint Protection Office (Special Technology Countermeasures)
" ... to assure that the nation's military strategy will not be compromised by a disruption to any of the commercial or defense infrastructures supporting U.S. military mission accomplishment."
Infrastructure Analysis
• Telecommunications
• Petroleum, Oil, & Lubricants
• Electric Power
• Natural Gas
• Transportation
• Municipal Water
• Interdependency Analysis

Force Protection and Chemical/Biological Defense Systems

Provides leadership, concept generation, and products to prevent or mitigate terrorist actions against DoD personnel, resources, facilities, and critical information to include physical security, operations security, and personal protective services. Supports combating terrorism activities and missions (both anti-terrorism and counter-terrorism) with the objectives of reducing the vulnerability to terrorist acts and developing offensive measures designed to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. Addresses consequence management, crisis management and intelligence support taken to oppose terrorist threats including chemical and biological attacks. The Navy's lead in chemical and biological defense systems and addresses the technology base, threat analysis and full spectrum of engineering expertise necessary to develop collective protection systems designs, to develop and test standoff and point detection options, decontamination solutions and techniques, and modeling and simulation.



US Coastguard

The Coast Guard's homeland security role includes:
* Protect ports, the flow of commerce, and the marine transportation system from terrorism.
* Maintain maritime border security against illegal drugs, illegal aliens, firearms, and weapons of mass destruction.
* Ensure that we can rapidly deploy and resupply our military assets, both by keeping Coast Guard units at a high state of readiness, and by keeping marine transportation open for the transit assets and personnel from other branches of the armed forces.
* Protect against illegal fishing and indiscriminate destruction of living marine resources, prevention and response to oil and hazardous material spills--both accidental and intentional.
* Coordinate efforts and intelligence with federal, state, and local agencies.

Monitoring spills
/stats/Appendix.htm#TypesNutmeg butter

but includes a long list of chemicals some of which occur in the contamination in Bhopal


NIMA -National Imaging and Mapping Agency
Geospatial Sciences Division

Provide accurate and timely expert analysis of worldwide gravity, satellite and positional information including imagery and mapping control for navigation, safety, intelligence, positioning and targeting in support of national security objectives.

The wing operates and maintains combat-ready C-130s, C-9s, C-20s and C-21s which fly missions throughout Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Day to day command and control over all USAFE units which extend from the United Kingdom to Turkey, is exercised from Ramstein. 86 Airlift Wing includes the 86th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron and the 86th Medical Group (86th Aerospace Medical Squadron, 86th Dental Services
Squadron, 86th Medical Operations Squadron, 86th Medical Support Squadron and 86th Medical Squadron); Located in the Rheinland-Palatinate, approximately seven miles west of Kaiserslautern, Ramstein Air Base (AB) is the largest North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-controlled air base on the European continent. Designed by French engineers, built by Germans, and operated by Americans, construction began in 1951. NATO subsequently established Headquarters Allied Air Forces, Central Europe at Ramstein on 28 June 1974. The 415th BSB receives and assists in the reception, staging and onward movement of U.S. reinforcing forces and acts as the command and control power projection platform as directed by higher headquarters.

Military domain belonging to an Area Support Group based in Europe, whose users appear to have a fondness for scouring

Also a major user of a Croatian medical site:
"Therapeutical Approach to the Victims of War"
from Croatian medical site which houses many research projects involved with birth defects.
Users of a site owned by an ex-Federal intelligence informer.
The mysterious domain had also showed up in the logs of a 980 acre bow-hunting farm in Illinois. There you may hunt white tailed buck and turkey. Berger Farms.
They had checked out the world’s finest pool-cue holder.
Shown an interest in the British actress Rochelle Jones.
They obviously had some sentimental links with 8th Aerial Port Squadron (from the Vietnam War, "Cargo Flyboys")

One gets a picture here of a bunch of men who occasionally do some work

On the very day we broke our story, Lt Gen B..Bell turns up again, this time in Europe. last we saw him he was in Fort Hood with III Corps.
Naval Undersea Warfare Center
The Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) is the Navy's full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for submarines, autonomous underwater systems, and offensive and defensive weapons systems associated with undersea warfare. One of the corporate laboratories of the Naval Sea Systems Command, NUWC is headquartered in Rhode Island, and has two major subordinate activities -- Division Newport (also in RI) and Division Keyport (in Washington State). Who we are and what we do can be found in the NUWC Overview.

Puget Sound Naval Shipyard
In 1990 the U.S. Navy authorized a program to recycle nuclear powered ships at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Approximately 16%* of the Shipyard’s workload involves inactivation, reactor compartment disposal, and recycling of ships. The Shipyard has pioneered an environmentally safe method of deactivating and recycling nuclear-powered ships. This process places the U.S. Navy in the role of being the world's only organization to design, build, operate, and recycle nuclear powered ships.

The picture opposite is linked to the page of a shipyard worker who writes:

This is about the high incidence of cancer at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.
It is about my life as a shipyard worker and cancer survivor.

These survivors too face a struggle for compensation in the face of denial, faked reports and deterrant litigation.


National Guard Bureau
US Army Medical Department

* Chemical and biological products
Chemical and biological products increase protection of the force against asymmetrical threats of weapons of mass destruction. Infectious disease products will significantly lower current death-from-non-battle-injury rates with a subsequent reduction in the medical footprint. These pretreatments and vaccines are instrumental enhancements that ensure healthy and productive soldier deployments worldwide.

President Bush (Jr) was of course a member of the National Guard. Did he join simply to avoid being drafted to Vietnam. Read about his military career here.


Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division

None of the NAWCAD websites are functioning. So we don't know what they are doing. But this report of environmental pollution at one of their sites might explain why they were interested in Bhopal. "n FY79, metals and VOCs, primarily trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (PCE), were detected in local groundwater wells." Sounds familiar? Link from graphic and here.


Army War College

In the words of Elihu Root, the founder of the USAWC, our grand purpose is:

Not to promote war, but to preserve peace by intelligent and adequate preparation to repel study and confer on the great problems of national defense, of military science, and of responsible command.

We achieve this purpose by accomplishing the mission assigned to us by Army Regulation 10-44, "USAWC":

To prepare selected military, civilian, and international leaders for the responsibilities of strategic leadership; educate current and future leaders on the development and employment of landpower in a joint, multinational and interagency environment; conduct research and publish on national security and military strategy; and engage in activities in support of the Army’s strategic communication efforts.



The actual perspicacity re chemical and biological weapons is
extremely low throughout DoD. If you read the US news and the
formal bluster, they have chemical battalions and mobile labs
and protective gear and sensors and this and that -- but the
truth of the matter is they don't have shit. It's a foolish
joy in widgetry that is peculiar to Americans. Reading about
it seems to give people erections.

The military does have a lot of things that don't work. They've
sold the public on the idea that they can reliably detect poisons
in clouds miles away with electronic thingamagigs but no such
reliable science exists. The first detection occurs when someone is
burned by mustard, or choked by cyanide or arsine, or
stumbles into VX or sarin. A canary would be good to have.
Not surprising. Soldiers aren't biochemists and the state of
the art in a chemistry lab isn't what they think. It doesn't
come from devices but from human experience. There are no

There is evidence about vulnerability to VX and sarin from US tests
in the 60's on soldiers but the information is classified,
probaby not accessible to anyone. This obstacle is political.
The US government covered the information up for years and only now
are some details on these things coming out, mostly because
a couple veterans have gone to the Veterans Administration
over medical benefits for conditions said to have resulted
from the tests. So the average grunt is screwed because
of the potential for scandal if too much detail about the
rotten science of testing on humans without consent comes

The one thing one might learn from the Bhopal incident
is the number of immediate casualties resulting as compared
to the gross amount of gas released. Relative toxicities are
unimportant. It's not critical that VX is more potent than
anything, like nitrogen mustards or methyl isocyanate. It
might give the line soldiers an inkling of how much gas they might actually
have to be hit with to cause a severe problem in unprotected troops. This
could then be related to the Iraqi military's capability
under fire of delivering such a quantity.

World War I experience seems to empirically indicate that
extreme amounts of gas had to be used to produce "results."
These were applied by literally a trainload of gas cylinders
or huge barrages assembled for set piece engagements. No
air forces existed. Both would appear to be out of range of
Iraq capabilities since the military is decrepit.

Assuming they have hundreds of tons of toxic material, one
or two SCUDS (half a ton warhead, inacurrate, tendency to
break apart long before target is reached, perhaps not as "good"
a weapon as the V2) would deliver barely a ton of gas which
would be militarily insignificant, I would think. The terror
aspect due to media magnfication would be high but the
actual risk to unprotected populations might not actually be
greater than high explosive. Small comfort, but that's probably
a more accurate risk assessment than will get into print.
Iraq used WWI-style gas assaults on entrenched Iranian positions
in the Iran-Iraq war. Their military is not as big or as new
now as it was then. Plus, they've already lost air superiority
over two thirds of the country. It's also hard to believe anyone
with experience in gas battalions that long ago would even be
active in the service anymore at the action level, so experience
might be nil. Poisons don't suffer inept dopes and poor handling

That said, I believe the non-chemists in the US military mistakenly
have mystical, often non-sensical beliefs about toxic chemicals not
backed by any actual scientific first-hand knowledge. Again,
unsurprising since that's the common view in the media, too.
None of this rules out the gas attacks can be mounted. Whether
they do anything besides kill civilians and enough soldiers to
goad the US military into doing something -exceptionally-
alarming -- like flatten Baghdad with high explosive, Daisy Cutters
and incendiaries -- is unknowable.
Perhaps you know what Union Carbide actually released at
Bhopal. I would venture a guess that it was a very substantial
amount of poison.

This is a terrible business but that's some off-the-cuff
reasoning with my chemistry hat on. I wrote something longish
on this for the Village Voice a year ago and it's linked off
my page -- probably down a screen or two.