IS THE U.S. MILITARY LOOKING FOR ON BHOPAL.NET?
10 OCTOBER 2002, A CONTINUING INVESTIGATION
landing craft of US Navy Amphibious Construction Battalion
One storms towards the shores of Bhopal.Net
BATTLE HONOURS of the US Navy's crack Amphibious Construction
Battalion One (PHIBCB1) include Korea, Vietnam and Kuwait.
"We still like to maintain that 'Fightin' Seabee'
image," says its Operations Officer, Lt. Cmdr.
George Suther USN. PHIBCB1 was the first Seabee unit
ashore in Vietnam, seeing action at Chu Lai, Da Nang,
Hue, and Cua Viet. In August 1990, during the build-up
to Operation Desert Shield, the Battalion -- following
a gung-ho John Wayne tradition that dates from its early
days hacking airstrips out of jungle -- was the first
Naval Construction Force unit into Saudi Arabia.
The Battalion operates on a 48 hour ready-for-aggro-anywhere-anytime
standby. It was catapulted back to the Persian Gulf
in August 1994 "due to the threat of resurgence
of Iraqi aggression" and stayed two months. Clearly
this was not long enough to frazzle Saddam's nerves
because in August 1995, once again "due to the
threat of resurgence of Iraqi aggression" it was
back in the Gulf where this time it remained more than
In August 2002, the Seabees made landfall on Bhopal.Net.
But what on earth were they doing here?
"We provide a service and that service is to and
for the Marines," explains Lt. Cmdr. Suther. "We
are the second unit to hit the beach, right after the
Marine Expeditionary Unit."
Right. So we checked our website statistics and, sure
enough, there they were -- the US Marines. They'd already
landed. And not just the Marines, but the US Army Corps
of Engineers, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Yokota
Air Base, Forts Rucker and Hood, the US Army Research
Laboratory, the US Naval Research Laboratory, the Naval
Surface Warfare Center, the National Imaging and Mapping
Center, the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, SBCCOM,
even the US Coastguard.
It would be gratifying to think that all these warfighters
(as they now seem to be called) have a lively interest
in the campaign for justice of the gas-survivors of
Bhopal, but this seems just a tad unlikely. Try as we
may we cannot imagine the boys of III Corps parading
round Fort Hood presenting brooms chanting "Jhadoo
Maro Dow Ko" (if this baffles you, scroll down
for our previous story). For one thing they're too busy.
Arent they supposed to be concentrating on Mr
Hussein and his merry band of pranksters? So why are
they here? It can't be, can it, that they think we pose
a threat to US national security? Even if we wished
to ward off this combined invasion by the air, land
and sea forces of the worlds most powerful nation,
the only weapons we could muster are an old, leaky fountain-pen
and an over-worked teapot.
But we don't wish to repel them. We would like to invite
them all for chai and samosas. Then we
could politely ask them if there is something they would
like to discuss.
TWO - "AMERICA'S HAMMER" AND A TOP SECRET
AUGUST 2002 Bhopal.Net had more than 100
visits from US military domains. Nearly three a day.
The strong interest continued through September, with
188 visits. What did these guests want? What were they
the usual porn stuff
IN A STORY ABOUT BHOPAL.NET published
on 30 September 2002, Bhopal's leading English language
newspaper, the Central Chronicle, speculated
about what drew the US armed forces to the website.
Why the strong military interest, the paper asked.
"They are not just wasting their time on the
Bhopal site. After all it is not the usual porn stuff..."
praise. Our site is much used by Bhopal survivors
and our friends in the world's media - last month
the BBC referred more users than anyone bar Google.
On the distaff side, we are well aware of Dow Chemical/Union
Carbide's interest in Bhopal.Net. In
August Dow Chemical - even without its proxies - was
by far the site's biggest user. Dow users examined
every page on the site an average of three times and
downloaded 65 megabytes of information and pictures.
tribe's last public appearance in 1947. Photo John C
eaters and dead hummingbirds
HAVE COME TO EXPECT the visits of Dow and its fellow
travellers - firms like Genencor which dabbles in what
it is pleased to call "Directed Evolution"
- it develops gene-based products for the industrial
chemical monde, and has joined forces with Dow to create
a Silicon Biotechnology. (Dow it seems learns
nothing. It has already had its fingers badly burned
by Dow-Corning's silicon breast implant disaster.)
there are the gawping onlookers. Companies like Houston-based
multinational oil giant Anadarko Petroleum, which proudly
claims to take its name from "nadarko" - a
centuries-old American Indian word signifying "those
who ate the honey of the bumble-bee."
Nadarkos are a vanished Oklahoma tribe, their honey
long since stolen out of their mouths, but their suffering
is conveniently forgotten and their name now lends dignity
to the grubby business of oil-hustling. (Anadarko is
implicated in clear-cutting of primary rainforest in
Guatemala's critically sensitive and supposedly inviolate
Laguna del Tigre Park reserve.)
will cover these and other corporate honey-eaters in
another article on non-military users of our website.
know all you need to know...
OUR 100 MILITARY VISITORS in August, no less than forty-two
came via nipr.mil, a mysterious US military domain
that has begun cropping up with increasing frequency
in website logs around the world. Francisco Roque, the
owner of blackant.net
was bemused to find nipr.mil users searching
his site for things as disparate as "wireless hack"
and "growing avocado trees", so he emailed
the NIPR.MIL system administrator and asked:
curious as to what some domains in the nipr.mil
range are, namely
> which i see hit my website with greater frequency.
came the terse reply "You know all you need to
as Francisco suspected, is not a single domain a but
a hush-hush web proxy that acts as a gateway for hundreds
of U.S. military domains in order to hide their identities.
It was established by the Defense Information Systems
Agency (DISA) in response to a memorandum (CM-5 1099,
INFOCOM) issued in March 1999 by the Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, calling for "actions to
be taken to increase the readiness posture for Information
Warfare." "Uncontrolled Internet connections,"
the document says, "pose a significant and unacceptable
threat to all Department of Defense information systems
beware "America's Hammer" ... not
WE HAD A VISIT from the info-warriors of
III Corps, Fort Hood, a force describing itself as "Americas
Hammer" and adding the boast: "Dominating the
domination is apparently to be accomplished via a System
Administrator Security Course whose recommended reading
includes such works as Hacking Exposed, Windows 2000,
(2nd and 3rd editions Sept and Oct 2001 respectively)
and Windows NT Security Handbook (McGraw Hill,
the 1996 edition)
hope they are not relying on these tomes, all of which
were published too early to catch major security flaws
in Windows 2000 and NT - for example a buffer overrun
in the phone book of the Remote Access Service - that
could allow a remote attacker to gain full control over
the machine via the internet or cause it to fail. This
hole was belatedly recognised by Microsoft
only in June of this year. Nor will Microsoft's patches
protect against the W32/BugBear-mm virus, first discovered
just thirteen days ago, which can disarm firewalls and
anti-virus systems, allow hackers in to take control
and steal passwords and information. In fact...
Hood has already been humiliated by hackers once this
year. (Story on right). The Army's red-faced
Director of Information Assurance, Colonel Thaddeus
Dmuchowski explained to amazed reporters that it had
happened because "Everything is connected."
it is. We are willing to bet that most US military computers
are not yet protected against Bugbear.
you are a III Corps, nipr.mil, other US military network
admin (or are called Thaddeus Dmuchowski) and this is
news to you, go to http://www.fsecure.com/bugbear
NOW and don't say Bhopal.Net didn't never do
nuffink for ya.
Bugbear worm is real, but the generals frequently have
fits of hysteria over fantasies. The spring 1998 issue
of the US Army War College's academic journal, Parameters,
contained the following po-faced warning from Lieutenant
Colonel Timothy L. Thomas, an analyst at the Foreign
Military Studies Office at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas:
". . . one computer virus capable of affecting
a person's psyche is Russian Virus 666. It manifests
itself in every 25th frame of a visual display, where
it produces a combination of colors that allegedly put
computer users into a trance. The subconscious perception
of the new pattern eventually results in arrhythmia
of the heart." (Quoted in Crypt Newsletter)
HOOD HOODWINKED BY HACKERS
invade military PCs with ease" wrote the Washington
Post on 16 August. "One
computer at Fort Hood in Texas held a copy of
an air support squadron's "smart book" that
details radio encryption techniques, the use of laser
targeting systems and other field procedures. Another
maintained hundreds of personnel records containing
Social Security numbers, security clearance levels and
credit card numbers... A NASA computer contained vendor
records, including company bank account and financial
routing numbers. Available on other machines across
the country were e-mail messages, confidential disciplinary
letters and, in one case, a memo naming couriers to
carry secret documents and their destinations...the
computers were linked to networks at Fort Hood."
Eric Adam, server administrator during the Embedded
Warfighter Exercise (part of III Corps Battle
Command Training Program) said "It gets very intense
when you have to make sure the network is secure from
outside attacks . . . Its similar to posting guards
at each gate or entrance to
the network so hackers cant access classified
were shocked and almost scared by how easy it was to
get in," said Hoodwinker-in-chief Brett O'Keeffe,
of computer security company, ForensicTec."It's
like coming across the Pentagon and seeing a door open
with no one guarding it."
company did the hack as a publicity stunt, then presented
its findings to the world as a concerned good citizen.
Unfortunately for them, the Hoods didn't take kindly
to being shown up and America's Hammer came down rather
hard on O'Keefe's nuts.
bombs, softball, Fat Man and Osama
TO GEORGE SMITH, the acutely well-informed and wickedly
acerbic editor of Crypt
News, hacking threats to US security
are routinely exaggerated in order to secure ever larger
military budgets. Crypt's current issue instances
Bruce Blair, the head of the Center for Defense Information,
"an organization which has demonstrated no more
know-how about the nuts-and-bolts of computer security
or the capability of "cyberterrorists" than
an average passerby, going on in the October 8 edition
of the Washington Times about how hackers may
have been capable of issuing launch orders for a nuclear
complained that on the very same day, President Bush
was using cod science on CNN to stir up fears
about Iraq. "...In a national speech, the President
goes on in debating team style about a 'soft ball-sized'
chunk of uranium being all that is needed for a 'noo-ku-lar'
did a little quick ferreting and discovered that the
softball factoid dates from 1945. it was part of the
information given out about the Nagasaki bomb "Fat
Man", which had a plutonium core weighing 13.6
lbs, approximately the size of a softball. At that stage
the softball was just an amazing believe-it-or-not scientific
fact but it evolved into believe-it-or-else paranoia
when in testimony given before the Senate Subcommittee
on European Affairs, August 1995. Graham Allison flamboyantly
carry this briefcase with me everywhere... In this briefcase,
I carried today in addition to the pile of papers, first
one softball. It is an American softball. If this softball
were highly-enriched uranium, it would weigh 30 pounds.
It fits my briefcase quite well. Actually, I could carry
several softballs of highly-enriched uranium in my case...
If we were talking about plutonium, enough plutonium
to make a bomb, a second item in this same briefcase
is more than enough. This is an American baseball. There
could be several of them that fit alongside the softball
terrorists who attacked the 110-story World Trade Center
in 1993, or more recently last April, the Federal Office
Building in Oklahoma City killing 162 men, women, and
children had used the same minivan that they drove,
but filled it not with chemical based explosives they
used, but rather with a weapon that started with this
years later in a Harvard discussion paper entitled "Russia's
Domestic Political Future and U.S. National Interests"
Allison pitched the softball directly to Osama.
[Russia's] assembled weapons, there are approximately
70,000 nuclear weapons-equivalents in stockpiles of highly
enriched uranium and plutonium, a softball-sized chunk
of which, if it found its way to Iran or to one of bin
Laden's terrorist groups, would provide the critical ingredient
from which a crude nuclear device could be assembled."
Allison did not bother to tell either the aghast senators,
or his Harvard readers, was that the plutonium would
need to be highly enriched, it would require a beryllium-polonium
initiator and 5,300 lbs of high explosive to crush the
core into a critical mass (the size of a tennis ball).
These things it is doubtful he could have fitted in
briefcase used at Nagasaki
on August 9, 1945 was delivered by B29
is the quality of the US Commander-in-Chief's intelligence.
(no pun intended)
Flats and Dow Chemical, Oak Ridge and Union Carbide
April 1999 the softball reappeared
in a salon.com article entitled "Mushroom
Cloud over Denver", which quoted a 1997
telephone conversation in which the Department of Energy's
Ed McCallum expressed his fears about lax security at
the Rocky Flats, Colorado, nuclear weapons facility.
workers at that plant, and the citizens of Colorado,
are at extremely high risk" said McCallum, from
terrorists who could unleash "a little mushroom-shaped
cloud" that would not only kill Denver's million-plus
inhabitants, but would claim tens of millions of additional
lives as its radioactive plume blew across the Midwest
and on to the East Coast. (It takes only a softball-sized
chunk of plutonium to create an explosion equivalent
to three or four Hiroshima blasts.)"
Rocky Flats site (pictured right), an environmental
disaster area dangerously polluted with wastes of plutonium
and other transuranic elements, used to be run by Dow
Chemical. Plutonium processing came to an abrupt halt
in 1989 when FBI agents raided the complex over environmental
crimes, including dumping and storing radioactive waste
in ways that allowed it to seep into drinking water
wholly-owned subsidiary Union Carbide used to manage
the Oak Ridge, Tennessee nuclear weapons facility where,
radioactive substances and other toxic wastes once dumped
on the ground or stored in ponds are now leaching through
the soil to the groundwater, and moving off the reservation.
ironies, in respect of the poisoned aquifers and wells
of Bhopal, hardly need comment.
post Sept 11, paranoia has become an industry in the
Secretary Rumsfeld's plan to attack somewhere you'll
X-File that still haunts US Defense Secretaries
Joint Forces Command Operation and operation Millenium
a top Porton-Down chemical warfare scientist was doing
in Bhopal just after the disaster
links to the US military human-testing program of
one of our visitors, SBCCOM
direct link to the heart of Union Carbide's management
fears about chemical weapons in the battlefield
and Halabja as living chemical warfare labs
about chemical attacks in the US homeland
Dow was so red in the face about Diane Wilson hanging
a Bhopal banner from their ethylene tower
the extent of US military chemical and nuclear waste
and legal problems, clean up attempts
US satellites might be targetting Union Carbide's
death-factory in Bhopal.
THREE - OF JOINT FORCES COMMAND, GASSED DAWGS, WEATHER
CONTROL, CHEMICAL WEAPONS FIELD TESTING, THE MOON, AND
PROFESSOR ABIAN OF BLESSED MEMORY (NOT NECESSARILY IN
HAS HAD SEVERAL VISITS FROM JOINT FORCES COMMAND, the
"transformation laboratory" of the United
States military. JFCOM develops new "warfighting"
concepts involving different wings of the military and
tests them with live and simulated exercises. It educates
joint leaders, trains joint forces, and integrates the
fighting capabilities of the Army, Navy, Air Force,
Marines and Space Force. It has a "master plan".
achieves all this, it seems, primarily by deploying
a fearsome arsenal of ACRONYMS. Were its visits
to us a C4ISR op to feed SJFHQ and JTF a PMESII-based
ONA so they can do some JIP, exercise a bit of ACJ2
and even wager a DIME, or was it plain, simple CNA,
CND or CNE? To find what this sentence means, look
2001/2002 Unified Command Plan gave USJFCOM a 'laser
focus' to become the incubator for new transformational
concepts to build the military of the 21st century."
"LASER-FOCUSED" MILITARY THINKING
JFCOM's work recently, Secretary of Defense Donald H.
Rumsfeld said, "The U.S. military will be taking
a bold step in its thinking. We can not and will not
bet on what will happen in the next war. The next act
of war can happen at any location."
the US Defense Secretary says "any location"
he means ANY location.
27 August, after consulting CCPPSAPT (Command Center
for Planning Pre-emptive Strikes Against Preposterous
Targets), Rumsfeld stunned a NPR News radio audience
by revealing that the United States could hypothetically
find itself in the situation of launching a pre-emptive
strike against ... oh no, you are really not going to
believe this... Click on Donald or his target and let
him speak for himself. His interview comes about halfway
RealAudio clip. Or
click here for transcript.
Rumsfeld's remarks were made in the contect of explaining
why he thought America could, and should if necessary,
go it alone against Iraq.
What makes a pre-emptive strike (against Iraq) legal
under international law, in your eyes?
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE RUMSFELD: Well, I'm not
a lawyer, Pam, you know that. Don't give me that stuff.
gaffe is par for the course in an administration whose
leader told British Prime Minister Blair that "the
trouble with the French is they don't have a word for
entrepreneur", and assured an audience at
Saginaw, Michigan, "I know the human being and
fish can coexist peacefully", but it would be wrong
to suppose that Mr Rumsfeld was being dense, or disingenuous.
is not beyond the bounds of possibility that he really
considers the moon to be a potential threat.
transformational plans for the armed forces seem to
be creating confusion.
advocates creation of a standing, joint force headquarters.but
does not spell out how the operational-level joint headquarters
would function during conflict, an omission that has
led to criticism of the proposal. What their relationship
to the warfighting commanders-in-chief would be is unknown,
as is how they would fit into the overall war plan.
Who would get which troops and when? What's the
relationship? Who's resourcing what? The Unified Command
Plan apportions forces to the CINCs. Where do the joint
headquarters fit in? What is the alignment of forces,
east and west?
Keay Davidson's biography, Carl Sagan: A Life.
in his career, Sagan worked for a secret military project
researching the idea of detonating a nuclear device
on the lunar surface, just to see what would happen.
Manhattan scientist Edward Teller was also interested,
if not directly involved, in the project.
idea of targetting the moon did not simply slip into
what the Defense Secretary calls his mind.
PLANNING WAR FOR THE MOON
PROJECT HORIZON REPORT
A U. S. ARMY STUDY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT
A LUNAR OUTPOST
The establishment of the outpost should be a special
project having authority and priority similar to the
Manhattan Project in World War II. Once established,
the lunar base will be operated under the control
of a unified space command. Space, or certainly that
portion of outer space encompassing the earth and
the moon, will be considered a military theatre. The
control of all United States military forces by unified
commands is already established and military operations
in space should be no exception. A unified space command
should control and utilise, besides the lunar base,
operationa1 military satellites and space vehicles,
space surveillance systems, and the logistical support
thereof. Other space commands might be organised as
our operations extended to translunar space.
5. Degree of Urgency.
To be second to the Soviet Union in establishing an
outpost on the moon would be disastrous to our nation's
prestige and in turn to our democratic philosophy.
Although it is contrary to United States policy, the
Soviet Union in establishing the first permanent base,
may claim the moon or critical areas thereof for its
own. Then a subsequent attempt to establish an outpost
by the United States might be considered and propagandised
as a hostile act. The Soviet Union in propaganda broadcasts
has announced the 50th anniversary of the present
government (1967) will be celebrated by Soviet citizens
on the moon. The National Space policy intelligence
estimate is that the Soviets could land on the moon
SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION
AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND
it can be stated that during the early 1970's it is
possible that space weapon systems will be developed
as a supplement to earth-based delivery systems. It
is also possible that military facilities may have
been established on or in orbit around the moon. Atmospheric
and climatic conditions will demand an air conditioned
environment for moon-based delivery systems. For increased
survival security and decreased requirements for "imported"
construction material, it seems reasonable to assume
that these would be constructed under rather than
above the moon's surface.
RULES US THINKING
Chinese space program is a military program using military
hardware and overseen by the military," said Charles
Vick, space policy analyst for the Washington, D.C.-based
Federation of American Scientists.
an alarmist report, Rick Fisher, China analyst for the
Washington, D.C.-based Jamestown Foundation, a right
wing think-tank close to the Bush administration, predicted
that China's People's Liberation Army will soon be capable
of making missiles and rockets reliable enough to challenge
the dominance of NASA. It could, he said, mean increased
competition for American aerospace companies like Boeing
and Lockheed Martin. But that wasn't the worst of it.
Chinese moon flight is impossible until the Chinese
develop a rocket as reliable as the Apollo program's
China were to endeavor to put something more permanent
on the moon," he said, "that would be very
Ziyuan, the Chief Scientist of China's lunar exploration
program said that he was "very optimistic"
about completing the first lunar mission before 2010.
The long-range objective of lunar exploration is to
"establish a lunar base, and exploit and utilize
the rich resources on the Moon," explained Ouyang.
Kawaguchi of Japans Institute of Space and Astronautical
Science (ISAS) said his country has not significant
effort in sending humans beyond Earth orbit. He noted
robotic research is not favored in Japan "for the
time being," but there is growing "what next"
interest. Kawaguchi said that human spaceflight undertaken
by other nations, such as China, may well stimulate
Japan to move out on human exploration.
Gorshkov of RSC Energia in Russia says his country is
itching to send a mission to Mars.
September 11th, top military officers have held discussions
with film makers, brainstorming scenarios for possible
future terrorist attacks. Richard Lindheim from the
Institute of Creative Technologies, says the military
wants to think differently. "They wanted to think
outside the box. They wanted to see if there were any
far out ideas that they had not considered."
first Concept Development Project (CD/V), set
about tackling the Army's need for Future Combat
Systems (FCS) - essentially a possible replacement
for today's main battle tank.
team included writer/director John Milius (Apocalypse
Now, Red Dawn, Clear and Present Danger),
writer/producer Chris Crowe (Last of the Mohicans,
Seven Days) and production designer Ron Cobb
(Star Wars, Aliens, The Abyss, Total Recall,
Cats and Dogs).
Driven by a warfighter dressed up like C3PO, expect
the new generation tank to make impressive flashes,
bangs and good whizzing noises.
THIS POINT WE CAN GO NO FURTHER WITHOUT PAYING:
tribute to Professor Alexander Abian
is a great pity that Professor Alexander Abian of Iowa
State University is no more. For true thinking outside
the box he stood alone. As long ago as 1991 he had anticipated
Secretary Rumsfeld's efforts to solve the vexed question
of the moon. It was an affront, Abian declared, to man's
ingenuity that we put up with the wretched thing. It rotateth
not and neither doth it spin. It causes inconvenient tides
(much good land is twice daily inundated in salty brine)
Let us blow it up, and have done with it for once and
is a sheer idealistic euphoria on the part of Newton
and Einstein to consider the Cosmos as being 'Endowed
with a profound Cosmic wisdom and a Celestial Supreme
Harmony'. This is a sheer ecstasy imbued in a slavish
reverence...We must alter and reshuffle our entire 8
billion year old decaying Solar System (in fact, the
entire Cosmos) and reject the slavish indoctrination
of the 'Majestic Celestial Harmony' which in reality
is putrid and corrupt. In particular, altering Earth's
orbit and tilt in order to stop the natural disasters
and calamities and epidemics of deadly diseases such
as plagues, cancer and various immune deficiency syndromes."
fuller exposition of his lunar thinking is here.
idea was pinched by Hollywood in its new, universally-panned,
movie The Time Machine starring the pulchritudinous
Samantha Mumba. The moon is blasted to smithereens by
dim-witted humans. Clearly it was only a matter of time
before the military cottoned onto the concept.
the moon explodes in the Time Machine
a star explodes, as seen by NASA
can attest to Abian's kindness and decency. He was a
formidable mathematician. Those of us who knew and loved
him are moved to wistful sneers when we see would-be
net-gods like Archimedes
Plutonium making futile attempts to emulate him.
Alexander Abian was a nonpareil. We shall not see his
like again. And neither will the scientists who gathered
in St Petersburg in June 1996 for a conference on "New
Ideas in Natural Sciences".
PLANS FOR THE MOON
first and the foremost step for making radical alterations
of Cosmic order, is to CHANGE AND ALTER THE MINDSET
OF HUMAN BEINGS.
We must get rid of our insane and slavish acceptance
and deceiving propaganda of various scientific, social,
and religious organizations. These organizations have
us and continue to brainwash us by asserting that the
setup (and especially our Solar System) is a "magnificent,
Celestial harmony" endowed with a supernatural
profound wisdom. In
reality though, that "Celestial harmony" is
wicked, peevish, pestiferous
Moon being the only satellite of the planet Earth has
detrimental effects. Its gravitational pull creates
of the rotational axis of the planet Earth causing all
of geological and meteorological disasters and devastations
the planet Earth. The oceanic tides also disturb and
the planet Earth creating spasmodic seizures with undesirable
irregularities in the orbital movement of the planet
Thus it is proposed:
a) To jolt the Moon in order to jolt the Earth into
a saner and
healthier (for human beings) orbit.
b) To land the Moon on planet Earth (somewhere in the
Ocean) in order to augment the Earth's territory and
the abovementioned detrimental effects of the Moon.
c) To bring one or several Moons of other planets (such
> or Jupiter) and suppley the planet Earth with two
Moons in order to better balance Earth's movement and
a more reliable overall stability.
d) To blow up the Moon into 2 or 3 pieces or to eliminate
All these proposed alterations must be carefully studied
simulations and their effects carefully examined. And
all these prior to
taking or initiating the actual implementation of any
of the above
In conclusion, it is high time that we examine the Celestial
our Planet Earth, Moon and Venus rationally and not
taking it for granted.
The human genius must not and will not tolerate for
humans to be orbited
around the Sun like a horde of blind-folded speechless
slaves in a
decadent corrupt orbit without imposing its own will
in choosing the
Celestial parameters of (at least) the Earth, Moon and
Venus. In fact,
it is high time to replace:
The origin of species by means of natural selection,
or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle
for life. (C. Darwin, 1859)
The future of species by means of rational alteration
of the Cosmos, or preservation of intelligent races
the struggle for life (A. Abian 1992)
ABIAN TIME-MASS EQUIVALENCE FORMULA T = A m^2 in Abian
ALTER EARTH'S ORBIT AND TILT TO STOP GLOBAL DISASTERS
JOLT THE MOON TO JOLT THE EARTH INTO A SANER ORBIT.ALTER
THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
REORBIT VENUS INTO A NEAR EARTH-LIKE ORBIT TO CREATE
A BORN AGAIN EARTH(1990)
THERE WAS A BIG SUCK AND DILUTION OF PRIMEVAL MASS INTO
THE VOID OF SPACE
BACK ON EARTH...
OF MASS OZONE DESTRUCTION
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Environmental Change and Security Project Report
to the lower atmosphere, two sorts of hostile manipulations
were pursued during the Second Indochina War by the
United States. First, various chemical substances
were released into clouds over enemy territory in
substantial attempts to increase rainfall so as to
make enemy lines of communication more nearly impassable.
Those attempts were unsuccessful. Second, unspecified
substances were introduced into the troposphere over
enemy territory in order to render enemy radars inoperable.
The results of those efforts were never made public.
Then during the Persian Gulf War, Iraq ruptured and
set fire to over 700 hundred Kuwaiti oil wells, thereby
releasing immense amounts of dense soot and poisonous
fumes into the troposphere for no stated purpose,
but perhaps at least in part in order to reduce visibility.
Deleterious effects of the smoke on the environment
included insults to the health of the local biota
(including humans). Whether local weather patterns
were influenced at the time by the smoke remains unclear.
Regarding further hostile possibilities for the lower
atmosphere, it has been suggested that it may become
possible to temporarily disrupt the ozone layer above
enemy territory for the purpose of permitting injurious
levels of ultraviolet radiation to reach the ground
(perhaps via the controlled release of a bromine compound
from orbiting satellites). Control over winds-for
example, the creation or redirection of hurricanes-remains
as yet beyond human reach. As to the upper atmosphere,
it is conceivable that means could be devised in the
future to manipulate the ionosphere for hostile purposes-specifically,
to alter its electrical properties in such a way as
to disrupt enemy communications.
the suggestion has been put forth that some day it
might be within human grasp to redirect asteroids
to strike enemy territory (as has been indirectly
suggested, most recently, by statements of the Chinese
government a few weeks ago)
from the Center for Defense Against Fatuous Threats
(DAFT) - Electromagnetic pulse weapons and scary scalars
military defense strategy since the era of President
Reagan, a former Hollywood actor, has relied more and
more on gizmos, gadgets and futuristic weapons systems.
No coincidence that the missile defense system was code-named
looking for material for a new Hollywood military-science
disaster story - or simply in need of a laugh - could
do worse than visit the website of the late Colonel
Tom Bearden, a nuclear engineer, wargames analyst, and
military tactician with over 26 years experience in
air defense systems, tactics and operations, technical
intelligence, antiradiation missile countermeasures,
nuclear weapons employment, computerized wargames and
military systems requirements.
to Bearden, the Soviet Union had electronmagnetic beam
weapons of awe-inspiring power as long ago as the 1930s.
Soviet beam weapons shot down Gary Powers's U2 spyplane,
were at the root of the Cuban missile crisis, destroyed
the Challenger space shuttle, diverted the jet stream,
caused earthquakes in
trigger volcanic eruptions.
"'science" originated in the work of a Nicholas
document NY 65-12290, page two, reveals that Tesla had
told New York Times reporter on 10 July 1940...
odd then to discover that this beam weapon technology,
presumably spurned by the US government in 1940, is
causing panic nearly sixty years later.
April 1997, at a conference on Terrorism & Weapons
of Mass Destruction held at the University of Georgia,
then-Secretary Cohen expressed his concern about "eco-terrorism"
and "scalar electromagnetic weapons". Terrorists,
he said, "are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism
whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes,
volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic
waves... It's real, and that's the reason why
we have to intensify our efforts."
is the cutting edge of that intensification.
on Earth, earlier this year, JFCOM Commanding General
Willam F Kernan stated, "Some threats are becoming
more sophisticated, and have the capability to inflict
great damage to U.S. interests through the use of weapons
of mass destruction. Smaller enemies may use simpler
methods to attack us, making early warning difficulty
and detection of enemy forces more problematic."
order to test its capacity for dealing with such threats,
JFCOM recently carried out exercise Millenium Challenge
2002 involving 15,000 troops in live situations
across the USA. It was the largest joint forces exercise
ever held on American soil.
Challenge 2002 was not an unqualified success. Debriefing
fellow military officers, Major General Dean Cash admitted
that they had come up against a weapon they couldn't
handle. "...Whatever it was, bio or chemical -
I'm almost positive it was chemical - we thought the
strike would eliminate it, and that would be it. But
once we really started - (inaudible) - no, it wouldn't.
It would spread this stuff. And it would just disperse
it. And it became much more of a challenge. And we should've
never allowed the strike."
At the close of the Gulf War,
the US Army exploded an Iraqi chemical weapons depot
at Kamashiya. In 1996, the Department of Defense
finally admitted that more than 20,000 US troops
were exposed to VX and sarin nerve agents as a result
of the US operation at Kamashiya. This may be one
cause of Gulf War Illness, another cause is certainly
the experimental vaccines unwittingly given to more
than 100,000 US troops. CP
of the House, Newt Gingrich, commented, "We're
not prepared for an engineered biological attack that's
infectious, we're not prepared for a multiple nerve
or poison gas attack or for a multiple nuclear attack
with low-yield weapons brought in by terrorists."
of clouds of poison gas rolling out across a landscape.
This we in Bhopal know about. At last, we have something
dogs tell no tales
is paranoid about chemical weapons.
FBIs list of likely terrorist weapons (as reported
Radioactive dispersal devices
Chemical Warfare agents
is also the execrable videotape of cretins gassing a dog
in a stone room in Afghanistan. It becomes proof that
al Qaeda are experts in chemical weaponry. Perhaps they
are, or perhaps not. But never mind that the stunt shown
can be duplicated in any high-school chemistry lab in
America, should anyone be stupid and hateful enough to
attempt it. Instead of branding the al Qaeda fiends a
bunch of loathsome but also perhaps dangerously incompetent
lamers, a videotape is shoveled through the media as indication
of an organized facility for killing technology using
OF US MILITARY UNITS INVOLVED IN THE INVASION OF BHOPAL.NET
NAVY COMPTEVFOR THE FIRST EVER US MILITARY TO VISIT
organization within the Navy, has as one of its tasks
the testing of new systems (weapons, ships, aircraft,
etc.) that industry develops and that the Navy considers
corps +Amphibious units
the first to land on Bhopal.Net. What were they looking
for? What do they want? What they will find is descriptions
of how horribly human beings die when exposed to US-designed
chemicals. Well, Saddam has plenty of those and no small
thanks to Union Carbide and Dow Chemical, both of which
are known to have supplied pesticides and other poisons
to his regime.
and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM)
9 October 2003, SBCCOM was re-designated into the following
organizations: RDECOM (Research, Development and Engineering
Command); CMA(Chemical Materials Agency); GUARDIAN BRIGADE;
PM NBC(PM Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense);
and SSC(Soldiers System Center).
US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command
Develop, integrate, acquire, and sustain soldier and
NBC defense technology, systems, and services to ensure
the decisive edge and maximum protection for the United
States. Provide for the safe storage, treaty compliance,
and destruction of chemical materiel.
military is worried about the following:
during combat of its troops to chemical weapons
to detect and neutralise airborne toxins or pathogens
of blowing up enemy chemical weapons dumps
term consequences of exposure to chemicals or protective
treatment (Gulf War Syndrome
detonating home made chemical bombs in a city
strike against oil refinery or chemical plant
term effects of chemical weapons exposed populations
problems with chemical arsenal
pollution of aquifers and water table
effects on workers
ARL does interesting work. One of its inventions, a system
to diagnose faults in Abrams M62 tank engines has been
adapted to monitor patients with high blood pressure.
In a statement issued in June, ARL said that it is working
with its partners "to equip future soldiers with
uniforms and gear that can heal them, shield them and
protect them against chemical and biological warfare".
"Nanomaterials have also been modified to become
nanoscale reactors that can be incorporated into the existing
topical skin protective (TSP) cream. The reactive TSP
cream not only protects, but also decontaminates chemical
agents in both vapor and liquid form, thus significantly
increasing the protection time. Also, genetically engineered,
nerve agent specific enzymes have been nanoencapsulated
into designer nanomaterials
NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
The US Naval Research Laboratory
ARRAY BIOSENSOR :
Infectious disease diagnostics
* Biological warfare defense B. anthracis
* Food & beverage safety
* Agricultural/veterinary testing
* Environmental monitoring
ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
16 visits also from the US Army Corps of Engineers. What are
they looking for? " The Military Programs Environmental
Division serves the nation through superior management, design
and execution of a full range of cleanup and protection activities:
* cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive
waste, or ordnance"
cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive
waste, or ordnance
* complies with federal, state, and local environmental
laws and regulations
* strives to minimize our use of hazardous materials
* conserves our natural and cultural resources
HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY
long-range goal of the Digital Hammurabi Project is
to make 3-D images of cuneiform-inscribed tablets available
to scholars worldwide over the Internet. The Code of
Hammurabi, circa 2000 B.C., contained clauses that could
be interpreted as early attempts at workers' compensation.
a research and development division of the Johns Hopkins
University, supports the Department of Defense, NASA
and other Government agencies through innovative applied
research, technical development, and problem solving.
Located on 365 acres in Laurel, Maryland, the Laboratory
employs approximately 3,350 engineers, scientists, and
supporting staff in a broad range of disciplines.
Homeland Defense Projects
APLs broad experience in defense and security
programs enabled a quick response to the national emergency
facing the nation after the tragic events of September
11, 2001. We refocused Laboratory programs in a number
of areas to address the new Homeland threat environment.
Many ongoing projects were expedited, and efforts were
made to quickly provide prototype technology at the
request of our military sponsors. Examples include biological/chemical
surveillance and detection systems, US mail inspection
and decontamination systems, information systems security,
port and air systems security, commercial shipping surveillance,
and many others.
Spectrometer Development for Bio-Chem Defense
Protecting people from chemical and biological weapons
requires highly specialized sensors that can identify
a wide range of pathogens. The equipment has to be compact
enough to be available quickly wherever it is needed.
APL has developed strong expertise using extremely high-resolution
mass spectrometry as a powerful tool to detect and identify
dangerous substances. APL scientists have developed
a tiny, powerful time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer
in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
and the University of Maryland. The device is a portable
"universal sensor" for analyzing solids, liquids,
or gases in the field. It incorporates advances in signal
processing and high-speed digitizing. It also features
new techniques for ion formation and energy-focusing,
new sampling and ionization schemes, and new analysis
techniques. The current Tiny TOF tool is built into
a suitcase-sized container, with plans to decrease its
size even more while increasing its versatality.
In one of the largest collaborative projects ever conducted
by APL and Hopkins Medicine, the Lab designed and conducted
a series of four WALEXs, the latest in June. The first
two involved key Hopkins staff from across the Hopkins
enterprise, and the last two brought in senior leaders
from city and state, and then from federal and military
As they worked through disaster scenarios triggered
by dirty bombs, chemical spills, suicide bombers and
a nuclear device, Hopkins and the response agencies
learned what they and others must do to function as
an effective team. APL researchers used the results
to identify current health delivery systemwide vulnerabilities,
define improved communication needs, design command
and control architectures, and develop engineering models
to evaluate critical response concepts of operation.
PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE
Eleven visits from the folks at Wright Patterson Air Force
base. Hosts the 74th Medical Group. ASC Engineering Directorate,
Acquisition Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H),
responsible for pollution prevention and environmental
compliance, also serves as the Secretary of Air Force
executive agent for all Air Force owned aircraft and missile
Executive Order 12114, dated Jan 4 1979
2-3 Actions included
Agencies in their procedures under Section 2-1 shall establish
procedures by which their officers having ultimate responsibility
for authorizing and approving actions in one of the following
categories encompassed by this Order, take into consideration
in making decisions concerning such actions, a document
described in Sectio 2-4(a):
(a) Major Federal actions significantly affectiing the
environment of the global commons outside the jurisdiction
of any nation (eg, the oceans or Antarctica)
(b) Major Federal actions significantly affecting the
environment of a foreign nation not participating with
the United States and not otherwise involved in the action
(c) Major Federal actions significantly affecting the
environment of a foreign nation which provide to that
(1) A product or physical
product producing a principal product or an emissions
or effluent which is prohibited or strictly regulated
by Federal law in the United States because its toxic
effects on the environment create a serious public health
ABW Environmental Management
Approximately 262 Above-Ground Storage Tanks (ASTs) at
the base that require monitoring with respect to spill
About 705,000 underground storage tank systems (USTs)
nationwide store petroleum or hazardous substances that
can harm the environment and human health if the USTs
release their stored contents.
Home also to the Air Force Research Laboratory designing
new kinds of warheads and air- and space-delivered munitions.
Yokota Air Base, in Japan.
From Rhine-Main non-stop flights depart directly for
Iraq, loaded with bombs, munitions and soldiers. On
the return flight they bring back wounded soldiers,
who are sent to US hospitals in Wiesbaden and Landstuhl.
The US army in Wiesbaden conducted a large scale exercise
simulating a chemical attack.
SURFACE WARFARE CENTER (DAHLGREN DIVISION)
17 pages of bhopal.org)
4,400 Division employees, an annual budget of nearly
one billion dollars
Joint Protection Office (Special Technology Countermeasures)
" ... to assure that the nation's military strategy
will not be compromised by a disruption to any of the
commercial or defense infrastructures supporting U.S.
military mission accomplishment."
Petroleum, Oil, & Lubricants
Protection and Chemical/Biological Defense Systems
Provides leadership, concept generation, and products
to prevent or mitigate terrorist actions against DoD
personnel, resources, facilities, and critical information
to include physical security, operations security, and
personal protective services. Supports combating terrorism
activities and missions (both anti-terrorism and counter-terrorism)
with the objectives of reducing the vulnerability to
terrorist acts and developing offensive measures designed
to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. Addresses
consequence management, crisis management and intelligence
support taken to oppose terrorist threats including
chemical and biological attacks. The Navy's lead in
chemical and biological defense systems and addresses
the technology base, threat analysis and full spectrum
of engineering expertise necessary to develop collective
protection systems designs, to develop and test standoff
and point detection options, decontamination solutions
and techniques, and modeling and simulation.
FOR CURRENT ALERT STATUS
Coast Guard's homeland security role includes:
* Protect ports, the flow of commerce, and the marine
transportation system from terrorism.
* Maintain maritime border security against illegal
drugs, illegal aliens, firearms, and weapons of mass
* Ensure that we can rapidly deploy and resupply our
military assets, both by keeping Coast Guard units at
a high state of readiness, and by keeping marine transportation
open for the transit assets and personnel from other
branches of the armed forces.
* Protect against illegal fishing and indiscriminate
destruction of living marine resources, prevention and
response to oil and hazardous material spills--both
accidental and intentional.
* Coordinate efforts and intelligence with federal,
state, and local agencies.
but includes a long list of chemicals some of which
occur in the contamination in Bhopal
-National Imaging and Mapping Agency
Geospatial Sciences Division
Provide accurate and timely expert analysis of worldwide
gravity, satellite and positional information including
imagery and mapping control for navigation, safety,
intelligence, positioning and targeting in support of
national security objectives.
AIRLIFT WING, BASED AT RAMSTEIN
The wing operates and maintains combat-ready C-130s, C-9s,
C-20s and C-21s which fly missions throughout Europe,
Africa and the Middle East. Day to day command and control
over all USAFE units which extend from the United Kingdom
to Turkey, is exercised from Ramstein. 86 Airlift Wing
includes the 86th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron and
the 86th Medical Group (86th Aerospace Medical Squadron,
86th Dental Services
Squadron, 86th Medical Operations Squadron, 86th Medical
Support Squadron and 86th Medical Squadron); Located in
the Rheinland-Palatinate, approximately seven miles west
of Kaiserslautern, Ramstein Air Base (AB) is the largest
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-controlled air
base on the European continent. Designed by French engineers,
built by Germans, and operated by Americans, construction
began in 1951. NATO subsequently established Headquarters
Allied Air Forces, Central Europe at Ramstein on 28 June
1974. The 415th BSB receives and assists in the reception,
staging and onward movement of U.S. reinforcing forces
and acts as the command and control power projection platform
as directed by higher headquarters.
Military domain belonging to an Area Support Group based
in Europe, whose users appear to have a fondness for scouring
Also a major user of a Croatian medical site:
"Therapeutical Approach to the Victims of War"
from Croatian medical site which houses many research
projects involved with birth defects.
Users of a site owned by an ex-Federal intelligence informer.
The mysterious domain had also showed up in the logs of
a 980 acre bow-hunting farm in Illinois. There you may
hunt white tailed buck and turkey. Berger Farms.
They had checked out the worlds finest pool-cue
Shown an interest in the British actress Rochelle Jones.
They obviously had some sentimental links with 8th Aerial
Port Squadron (from the Vietnam War, "Cargo Flyboys")
One gets a picture here of a bunch of men who occasionally
do some work
AREA SUPPORT GROUPS
On the very day we broke our story, Lt Gen B..Bell turns
up again, this time in Europe. last we saw him he was
in Fort Hood with III Corps.
Undersea Warfare Center
The Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) is the Navy's
full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation,
engineering and fleet support center for submarines, autonomous
underwater systems, and offensive and defensive weapons
systems associated with undersea warfare. One of the corporate
laboratories of the Naval Sea Systems Command, NUWC is
headquartered in Rhode Island, and has two major subordinate
activities -- Division Newport (also in RI) and Division
Keyport (in Washington State). Who we are and what we
do can be found in the NUWC Overview.
Sound Naval Shipyard
1990 the U.S. Navy authorized a program to recycle nuclear
powered ships at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Approximately
16%* of the Shipyards workload involves inactivation,
reactor compartment disposal, and recycling of ships.
The Shipyard has pioneered an environmentally safe method
of deactivating and recycling nuclear-powered ships.
This process places the U.S. Navy in the role of being
the world's only organization to design, build, operate,
and recycle nuclear powered ships.
picture opposite is linked
to the page of a shipyard worker who writes:
is about the high incidence of cancer at Puget Sound
It is about my life as a shipyard worker and cancer
survivors too face a struggle for compensation in the
face of denial, faked reports and deterrant litigation.
US Army Medical Department
* Chemical and biological products
Chemical and biological products increase protection
of the force against asymmetrical threats of weapons
of mass destruction. Infectious disease products will
significantly lower current death-from-non-battle-injury
rates with a subsequent reduction in the medical footprint.
These pretreatments and vaccines are instrumental enhancements
that ensure healthy and productive soldier deployments
President Bush (Jr) was of course a member of the National
Guard. Did he join simply to avoid being drafted to
about his military career here.
Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division
of the NAWCAD websites are functioning. So we don't
know what they are doing. But this report of environmental
pollution at one of their sites might explain why they
were interested in Bhopal. "n FY79, metals and
VOCs, primarily trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethane
(PCE), were detected in local groundwater wells."
Sounds familiar? Link
from graphic and here.
the words of Elihu Root, the founder of the USAWC, our
grand purpose is:
Not to promote war, but to preserve peace by intelligent
and adequate preparation to repel aggression...to study
and confer on the great problems of national defense,
of military science, and of responsible command.
We achieve this purpose by accomplishing the mission
assigned to us by Army Regulation 10-44, "USAWC":
To prepare selected military, civilian, and international
leaders for the responsibilities of strategic leadership;
educate current and future leaders on the development
and employment of landpower in a joint, multinational
and interagency environment; conduct research and publish
on national security and military strategy; and engage
in activities in support of the Armys strategic
VIEW OF US CAPABILTIES TO DEFEND AGAINST CHEMICAL WEAPONS
BY THE EDITOR OF THE CRYPT NEWSLETTER
actual perspicacity re chemical and biological weapons
extremely low throughout DoD. If you read the US news
formal bluster, they have chemical battalions and mobile
and protective gear and sensors and this and that --
truth of the matter is they don't have shit. It's a
joy in widgetry that is peculiar to Americans. Reading
it seems to give people erections.
The military does have a lot of things that don't work.
sold the public on the idea that they can reliably detect
in clouds miles away with electronic thingamagigs but
reliable science exists. The first detection occurs
when someone is
burned by mustard, or choked by cyanide or arsine, or
stumbles into VX or sarin. A canary would be good to
Not surprising. Soldiers aren't biochemists and the
the art in a chemistry lab isn't what they think. It
come from devices but from human experience. There are
There is evidence about vulnerability to VX and sarin
from US tests
in the 60's on soldiers but the information is classified,
probaby not accessible to anyone. This obstacle is political.
The US government covered the information up for years
and only now
are some details on these things coming out, mostly
a couple veterans have gone to the Veterans Administration
over medical benefits for conditions said to have resulted
from the tests. So the average grunt is screwed because
of the potential for scandal if too much detail about
rotten science of testing on humans without consent
The one thing one might learn from the Bhopal incident
is the number of immediate casualties resulting as compared
to the gross amount of gas released. Relative toxicities
unimportant. It's not critical that VX is more potent
anything, like nitrogen mustards or methyl isocyanate.
might give the line soldiers an inkling of how much
gas they might actually
have to be hit with to cause a severe problem in unprotected
could then be related to the Iraqi military's capability
under fire of delivering such a quantity.
World War I experience seems to empirically indicate
extreme amounts of gas had to be used to produce "results."
These were applied by literally a trainload of gas cylinders
or huge barrages assembled for set piece engagements.
air forces existed. Both would appear to be out of range
Iraq capabilities since the military is decrepit.
Assuming they have hundreds of tons of toxic material,
or two SCUDS (half a ton warhead, inacurrate, tendency
break apart long before target is reached, perhaps not
a weapon as the V2) would deliver barely a ton of gas
would be militarily insignificant, I would think. The
aspect due to media magnfication would be high but the
actual risk to unprotected populations might not actually
greater than high explosive. Small comfort, but that's
a more accurate risk assessment than will get into print.
Iraq used WWI-style gas assaults on entrenched Iranian
in the Iran-Iraq war. Their military is not as big or
now as it was then. Plus, they've already lost air superiority
over two thirds of the country. It's also hard to believe
with experience in gas battalions that long ago would
active in the service anymore at the action level, so
might be nil. Poisons don't suffer inept dopes and poor
That said, I believe the non-chemists in the US military
have mystical, often non-sensical beliefs about toxic
backed by any actual scientific first-hand knowledge.
unsurprising since that's the common view in the media,
None of this rules out the gas attacks can be mounted.
they do anything besides kill civilians and enough soldiers
goad the US military into doing something -exceptionally-
alarming -- like flatten Baghdad with high explosive,
and incendiaries -- is unknowable.
Perhaps you know what Union Carbide actually released
Bhopal. I would venture a guess that it was a very substantial
amount of poison.
This is a terrible business but that's some off-the-cuff
reasoning with my chemistry hat on. I wrote something
on this for the Village Voice a year ago and it's linked
my page -- probably down a screen or two.